A Bibliography Data-base Complied by Cropwatch
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Sandalwood Oil General
Preen C. (2005) "Update on Sandalwood Essential Oil" Aromatherapy Regulation News Summer 2005 Newsletter 2(2), 4. Aug 2005.
Cropwatch comments: Further proof, if it were needed, that some Aromatherapy (AT) organisation officials are 'in denial' about the role of aromatherapy as a consumer market in the serious demise of sandalwood species - here Preen attempts to shift the blame to the perfumery trade. Further, Preen argues that Santalum album is not actually endangered (the IUCN Red List http://www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/31852/all classifies it as vulnerable), wrings her hands a little about sandalwood smuggling, and pledges faith in the much-criticised sandalwood replanting schemes to eventually solve the problem 30-40 years hence. Cropwatch currently observes that little, if any, Sandalwood oil East Indian is currently available on the spot market, and what there is, is practically always adulterated - it is of note that AT professional organisations have no formal analytical standards for sandalwood oil used in aromatherapy. Further, the carbon footprint of sandalwood oil is particularly unacceptable wrt climate change concerns, with excessive energy consumption occurring as a result of long distillation times. Therefore by continuing to defend the use of sandalwood oil in AT, one can only conclude that any ecological interests have been inappropriately sold out to the commercial interests of AT essential oil traders, who anyway have an unhealthy & unseen influence on the policy of many AT professional organisations. Further, aromatherapists are likely to be indirectly supporting gangland by consuming sandalwood oil, most of which is either smuggled with or without the help of corrupt officials, or otherwise illegally produced. This is a completely wrong-headed article in Cropwatch's opinion, and needs refuting in further detail.
AAP General News Perth (Australia) Dec 12th 2000 “Qld: Five fined for sandalwood harvesting” “WA: sandalwood claims would be dealt with if true: Court”.
Abstract: Story alleging that West Australian government officials were exporting sandalwood to dealers in Taiwan who had offered state officials bribes or prostitutes.
AAP General News (Australia) Nov 18 (2002)
Abstract: Five people fined in the Cairns Magistrate Court for illegal harvesting of the protected sandalwood plant, the Queensland EPA reportedly sa
Adams D.R., Bhatnagar S.P. & Cookson R.C. (1975) “Sesquiterpenes of Santalum spicatum” Phytochemistry 14(5-6), 1459-1460.
Anon (2002) “A Crop in Crisis” – a section of “A Calming Influence”
Soap, Perfumery & Cosmetics (Oct 2002) p42-3.
Applegate Graham B, Davis Allan GW & Annable Peter A (1990) “Managing Sandalwood for Conservation in N. Queensland, Australia” in Proc of the symposium on sandalwood in the Pacific: April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, Hawai/technical co-ordinators: Lawrence Hamilton, C. Eugene Conrad. Pub: Symposium on Sandalwood Conservation (1st: 1991: Honolulu, Hawaii).
Applegate G.B. & McKinnell F.H. (1993) “The Management & Conservation Status of Santalum species occurring in Australia.” In McKinnell F.H. ed. Sandalwood in the Pacific Region. Symposium 2nd June 1991 at XVII Pacific Science Congress, Honolulu, ACIAR Proceedings No. 49, 5-12.
Barrats D.R. (1987) “Initial observations on flowering and fruiting in Santalum spicatum (R. Br.) A. DC the Western Australian sandalwood.” Mulga Research Centre, Australia 4, 61-65.
Barrats D.R. (1987) “Germination & planting out techniques for the Western Australian sandalwood Santalum spicatum. Mulga Research Centre Journal 9, 31-32.
Barrats D.R., Wijesuriya S.R. & Fox J.E.D. (1985) “Observations on foliar nutrient content of sandalwood (Santalum spicatum R. Br. DC.) Mulga Research Centre Journal 8, 81-91.
Birch A.J., Moslyn K.M.C. & Penfold A.R. (1953) "The sesquiterpene alcohols of Eucarya spicata Sprague & Summ." Aust. J. Chem 6, 391-394.
Bolt C. (2001) “Tax scheme controversy fells plantation timber company” The Financial Review 31 July 2001 p12.
Brand J.E., Robinson N & Archibald R.D. (2003) “Establishment & growth of sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) in south-western Australia: Acacia host trials.” Australian Forestry 66(4), 294-299.
Brand J.E. & Jones P.J. “The influence of landforms on sandalwood (Santalum spicatum (R.Br) A.DC.) size structure & density in the North East Goldfields, Western Australia.” Rangeland Journal 24(2), 219-226.
Brand J.E. (2002) “Review of the Influence of Acacia species on establishment of Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) in Western Australia Conservation Science Western Australia 4(3), 125-129. Rangeland Journal 21(2), 220-228.
Brand J.E. (1999) “Ecology of sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) near Paynes Find & Menzies, Western Australia: size structure & dry-sided stems” Rangeland Journal 21(2), 220-228.
Brand J.E. (1993) “Preliminary observations on ecotypic variations in Santalum spicatum. 2. Genotypic variation.” Mulga Research Centre Journal 11, 13-19.
Brand J.E. (1999) “Ecology of Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) near Paynes Find & Menzies, Western Australia: size structure & dry-sided stems.” Rangeland Journal 21(2), 220-228.
Brand J.E., Crombie D.S. & Mitchell M.D. (2000) “Establishment and growth of sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) in south-western Australia: the influence of host species.” Australian Forestry 63(1), 60-65.
Brand J.E., Ryan P.C. & Williams M.R. (1999) “Establishment and growth of sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) in south-western Australia: the Northampton pilot trial.” Australian Forestry 62(1), 33-37.
Braun N.A. & Meier M. (2004) “Western Australian & East Indian Sandalwood Oil – A Comparison” Euro Cosmetics 12(1), 22-29.
Braun N.A., Meier M. & Pickenhagen (2003) "Isolation & chiral GC analysis of beta-bisabolols - trace constituents from the essential oil of Santalum album L. (Santalaceae). J. Essent. Oil Res. 15(1), 63-65.
Brophy J.J., Fookes C.J.R. & Lassak E.V. (1991) “Constituents of Santalum spicatum (R. Br.) A. DC. Wood oil.” J. Essen. Record Re.s 3, 381.
Byrne M., McDonald B. & Brand J. (2003) “Phylogeography & divergence in the chloroplast genome of Western Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) Heredity 91(4), 389-395.
Byrne M., McDonald B., Broadhurst L, & Brand J. (2003) “Regional Genetic Differentiation in Western Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) as revealed by nuclear RFLP analysis.” Theoretical & Applied Genetics 107(7), 1208-1214.
CALM (2001) (Dept of Conservation & Land Management 2001) “New Sandalwood Contracts for Station Owners” Media Release 17th July Perth: Dept of Conservation & Land Management.
Choupechoux R. (1931) Contribution a l'etude de l'essence de Santal Australie. pub. Lyon, Boso & Riou 1931.
Crossland T. (1982) “Response to fertiliser treatment by seedlings of sandalwood, Santalum spicatum (R.Br) DC.” Annual Report, Mulga Research Centre Australia 5, 13-16.
Crossland T. ”Preliminary investigations into germination and establishment of Sandalwood, Santalum spicatum (R. Br.) DC. Annual Report, Mulga Research Centre Australia 4, 61-65.
Donovan R.J. (undated) A history of the sandalwood industry of Western Australia Battye Library, Perth, Australia
Fox J.E.D. & Brand J.E. (1993) “Preliminary observations on ecotypic variations in Santalum spicatum. 1. Phenotypic variation.” Mulga Research Centre Journal 11, 1-12.
Fergeus J. (undated pamphlet) “Australian Sandalwood Aromatic Review” Australian Botanical Products Pty Ltd.
Fox J.E.D. & Wijesunya S.R. “Sandalwood planting with property owners” Mulga Research Centre Journal 8, 123-127.
Flanagan F. & Barrett D.R. (1993) “Sandalwood Nuts as Food” Mulga Research Centre Journal 11,21-26.
Gearon V. (2000) at http://www.essentiallyoils.com/Newsletters/October_2000_Newsletter/october_2000_newsletter.html
Gearon V. (2002) Aromatherapy Today 24, Dec 2002 p21
Henschke I. (2000) Sandalwood brings sweet smell of success. Landline. Australian /Broadcasting Corp http://www.abc.net.au/landline/stories/s206172.html
Heuberger E., Gearon V., Birbeck S., Buchbauer G. (2002) “The essential oil of Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) – effects of different samples on human physiology & subjective evaluation, 33rd ISEO, Sept 2002, Lisbon, Portugal.
Kauber K. “Australian Sandalwood oil – Acute Oral Toxicity and Acute Dermal Toxicity”, Scantox, Denmark 2000 (unpublished).
Kealley I.G. (1991) “The Management of Sandalwood” Dept of Conserbvation & Land Management, W. Australian Wildlife Management Program No 8, 36p.
Kerr J. (2000) “Essential Oil Profile – Australian Sandalwood Oil” Aromatherapy Today 15, 8-12.
Kerr J. (2002) “Editorial Comment” Aromatherapy Today 24 Dec 2002 p32-33.
Liu Y.D., Longmore R.B., Boddy M.R. & Fox J.E.D. (1997) “Separation & identification of triximenynin from Santalum spicatum R. Br. Journal of the Americ. Oil Chemists Soc. 74(10), 1269-1272.
Liu Y.D., Longmore R.B. (1997) “Dietary sandalwood seed oil modifies fatty acid composition of mouse adipose tissue, brain & liver.” Lipids 32(9), 965-969.
Liu Y.D., Longmore R.B. & Kailis S.G. (1997) “Proximate & fatty acid composition changes in developing sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) seeds.” J of the Science of Food & Agriculture 75(1), 27-30.
Liu Y.D., Longmore R.B., Fox J.E.D. (1996) “Separation & identification of ximenynic acid isomers in the seed oil of Santalum spicatum R. Br. as their 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives.” Journal of the Americ. Oil Chemists Soc. 73(12), 1729-1731.
Liu Y.D., Longmore R.B. & Kailis S.G. (1995) “A comparison of kernel compositions of sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) seeds from different Western Australian locations. Mulga Research Centre Journal 12, 15-21.
Lonergan O.W. (1990) “Historical Review of Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) Research in Australia”. Perth: Research Bulletin No 4 Dept of Conservation & Land Management Dec 1990 p28.
McKinnell F.H. (1990) “Status of management & silvicultural research on Sandalwood in W. Australia & Indonesia” In Hamilton L. & Conrad C.E. ed. Proceedings of the Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific; April 9-11 Tech. Rep PSW-122, Pacific Research Station, Forest Service, UJS Dept of Agric, Honolulu, 19-25.
Moretta P., Ghisalbert E.L., Piggott M.J & Trengove R.D. (1998) “Extraction of oil from Santalum spicatum by supercritical fluid extraction.” ACIAR Proceedings Series 84, 83-85
Cropwatch comments: According to ISO 9235, the supercritical fluid extraction of aromatic material produces an extract; it cannot be termed an essential oil.
Mullholland J. “An investigation of the harvesting processing and export of Western Australia sandalwood (Santalum spicatum).” - abstract of Masters thesis University of Australia; summary available at the website of Institute of Foresters of Australia http://www.ifa.unimelb.edu.au/abstracts/master/1994/mulholland1994.htm
Murphy M.T., Garkakalis M.J. & Hardy G.E.S.J. “Seed catching by woylies Bettongia penicillata can increase sandalwood Santalum spicatum regeneration in Western Australia” Austral. Ecology 30(7), 747-755.
Murthy S.G. (1985) “Sandalwood: Case Study of a Resource in Decline.” Garden 16-19.
Oates A. (1989) The Story of Sandalwood The Museum of the Golfields Kalgoorlie
Piggot M.J., Ghisalberti E.L. & Trengove R.D. (1997) “West Australian Sandalwood Oil: Extraction by Different Techniques and Variations of the Major Components in Different Sections of the Same Tree” Fl. & Frag. J. 12, 43-46.
Radomiljac A. (2000) see: http://users.bigpond.net.au/sellwood/kimsoc/pasttalk00.htm
Radomiljac, A.M. 1998. “The influence of pot host species, seedling age and supplementary nursery nutrition on Santalum album (Linn.) plantation establishment within the Ord River Irrigation Area, Western Australia.” Forest Ecology and Management 102(2–3), 193–201.
Raychaudhuri S.P. & Varma A. (1980) “Sandal spike” Review of Plant Pathology 59(3), 99-107.
RIRC (undated) see: http://www.rirdc.gov.au/champions/MtRomanceAustralia.html
Robson K. (2004) “Experiences with Sandalwood in plantations in the South Pacific & N. Queensland.” In: Prospects for high value hardwood in the “dry” tropics of N. Australia. Proceedings of a workshop held in Mareeba, N. Queensland, Australia 19-21st Oct 2004. pub. Private Forestry North Queensland Association Inc. N. Queensland.
Rugkhla A. & Jones M.G.K. (1998) “Somatic embryogenesis & platelet formation in Santalum album & S. spicatum.” J of Exptl. Botany 49(320), 563-571.
Rugkhla A., McComb J.A. & Jones M.G.K. (1997) “Intra- & inter-specific pollination of Santalum spicatum & S. album.” Australian J of Botany 45(6), 1083-1095.
Samson, Basil (1980): The camp at Wallaby Cross. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies; 199-202. Sawyer (1892) through Applegate Graham B, Davis Allan G.W. & Annable. Peter A. (1990) “Managing Sandalwood for Conservation in N. Queensland, Australia” in Proc of the symposium on sandalwood in the Pacific : April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, Hawai/technical co-ordinators: Lawrence Hamilton, C. Eugene Conrad. Pub: Symposium on Sandalwood Conservation (1st: 1991: Honolulu, Hawaii).
Sen-Sarma P.K. (1982) “Insect Vectors of Sandal spike disease” European J of Forest Pathology 12(4/5), 297-299.
Shea S.R., Radmomiljac A.M., Brand & Jones P. (1998) “An Overview of Sandalwood and the Development of sandal in Farm Forestry in W. Australia”. ACIAR Proceedings 84, 9-18.
Shellie R, Marriott P., Morrison P. (2004) " Comprehisive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame-ionisation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection: qualitative & quantitative analysis of West Aiustraliasn sandalwood oil" J Chromatog Sci. 42(8), 417-422
Abstract: The use of gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS), GC-time-of-flight MS (TOFMS), comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCxGC)-flame ionization detection (FID), and GCxGC-TOFMS is discussed for the characterization of the eight important representative components, including Z-alpha-santalol, epi-alpha-bisabolol, Z-alpha-trans-bergamotol, epi-beta-santalol, Z-beta-santalol, E,E-farnesol, Z-nuciferol, and Z-lanceol, in the oil of west Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum). Single-column GC-MS lacks the resolving power to separate all of the listed components as pure peaks and allow precise analytical measurement of individual component abundances. With enhanced peak resolution capabilities in GCxGC, these components are sufficiently well resolved to be quantitated using flame ionization detection, following initial characterization of components by using GCxGC-TOFMS.
Sidheswaran P. & Ganguli S. (1997) “Sandalwood Oil Substitutes – A Review” Supplement to Cultivation & Utilisation of Aromatic Plants 123-139.
Statham P. (1990) “The sandalwood Industry in Australia: A history” in Proc of the symposium on sandalwood in the Pacific : April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, Hawai/technical co-ordinators: Lawrence Hamilton, C. Eugene Conrad. Pub: Symposium on Sandalwood Conservation (1st: 1991: Honolulu, Hawaii). p26
Struthers R., Lamont B.B., Fox JED, Wijesuriya S. & Crossland T. “Mineral nutrition of Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum).” J. of Exptl. Botany 37(182), 1274-1284.
Talbot L. (1983) "Wooden gold. Early days of the sandalwood industry." Forest Focus 30, 21-31. pub W. Austr. Forest Dept, Perth.
Taylor D., Swift S. & Collins S. (2000) “Testing growth & survival of four sandalwood species in Queensland” Sandalwood Research Letter 10, 6-8.
Tonts M. (2001) Sandalwood Market Study (Draft Report) Perth: Dept of Agriculture.
Tonts M. & Selwood J. (2002) “Niche Markets, Regional Diversification and the Reinvention of Western Australia’s Sandalwood Industry” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 94(5), 564-575.
Trueman, S., C. Warburton, E. James, Y. Fripp, and H. Wallace (2001) “Clonality in remnant populations of Santalum lanceolatum.” Sandalwood Research Newsletter 14, 1–4.
Wijesuriya S.R. & Fox J.E.D. (1985) “Growth and nutrient concentration of sandalwood seedlings grown in different potting mixtures.” Mulga Research Centre Journal 8, 33-40.
Woodall G.S. (2004) “Cracking the woody endocarp of Santalum spicatum nuts by wetting and rapid drying improves germination” Australian J. of Botany 52(2), 163-169.
Woodall G.S. & Robinson C.J.
(2003) “Natural diversity of Santalum spicatum host species in
south-coast river systems and their incorporation into profitable and
biodiverse revegetation” Australian Journal of Botany 51(6),
Woodall G.S. & Robinson C.J. (2002) “Direct seeding Acacias of different form & function as hosts for Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum).” Conservation Science Western Australia 4(3), 130-134.
Valder C., Neugebauer M., Meier M., Kohlenberg B., Hammerschmidt F.-J., Braun NA (2003) “Western Australian Sandalwood oil – New Constituents of Santalum spicatum (R.Br) A DC. (Santalaceae)” J. Essent. Oil Res. 15(3), 178-186.
Valder C., Neugebauer M., Meier M., Kohlenberg B., Hammerschmidt F.-J., Braun NA (2003a) “Santalum spicatum (R.Br.) A DC. (Santalaceae) – nor-Helifolenal and Acorenol Isomers: Isolation and Biogenic Considerations” J. Essent. Oil Res. 15, 381-386.
Chen F. (1999) "Cuttage of Santalum album." Zhong Yao Cai 22(3), 109-111
Abstract: The effects of cuttage times, miaternal plant ages, hormones and mediums on the taking root of a cutting were studied in 1991-1996. The results showed that the sprouts of germinating and growing 20-30 days from the cut back of maternal plant as cuttings, the rate of the taking root get to about 70%; the suitable cuttage time was in June to August; the proper medium was river sands, but the effects of hormones were not obvious.
Gao Z., Wu Y., Dong Z. & Wu W. (2004) "Habit & control of pests in Santalum album." Zhong Yao Cai 27(8), 549-51.
habit of 5 species pests from South China Botanical Garden was reported
in this paper, they are Delias aglaia Linni, Zenzera
coffeae Nietner, Parlatoria pergandii Comstock, Scarab
(grub), Agrotis ypsilon Rottemberg. Their control methods were
Li Y. (1997) "Preliminary studies on grafting of Santalum album." Zhong Yao Cai 20(11), 543-545. Abstract: With the purpose of propagating high production Clone of Santalum album, the best season and practical method of grafting, and the selection of shoots for scion are studied. The preliminary results show: The best season for grafting in Guangzhou District occurs from June to October, when the daily mean temperature is over 25 degrees C, the side graft is recommedable; the scion from 1-5-year old young trees is much in favor for grafting than that from adult trees. In the right condition, side grafting of Santalum album has had up to 80 percent success rate.
Yu J.G., Cong P.Z., Lin J.T., Fang H.J. (1988) "Studies on the chemical constituents of Chinese sandalwood oil & preliminary structures of five novel compounds". Yao Xue Xue Bao 23(11), 868-872.
Yu, J. G., Cong P.Z., et al. (1993). “Studies on the structure of alpha-trans-bergamotenol from Chinese sandalwood oil.” Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 28(11), 840-844.
Kreipl A. Th. & König W.A. (2004) “Sesquiterpenes from the east African sandalwood Osyris tenuifolia” Phytochem 65(14), 2045-2049
Abstract: The essential oil of the east
African sandalwood Osyris tenuifolia was investigated by chromatographic and
spectroscopic methods. Beside several already known sesquiterpenes four new
compounds could be isolated by preparative gas chromatography and their
structures investigated by mass spectroscopy and NMR techniques. Two of the
new compounds – tenuifolene (17) and ar-tenuifolene (15) – show a new
sesquiterpene backbone. 2,(7Z,10Z)-Bisabolatrien-13-ol (23) and the cyclic
ether lanceoloxide (21) belong to the bisabolanes.
Wells R. (2006) "On the scent: Rhona Wells investigates sandalwood poaching, the ugly downside of the luxurious natural perfumery raw material trade" Soap, Perfumery & Cosmetics Feb 2006 79(2), 31.
Cropwatch comments: Informative one-page article on the Tanzanian situation where sandalwood logs are smuggled to India for distillation to produce sandalwood oil.
Adkoli N.S. & Kushalappa K.A. (eds)(1977) Proceedings of All India Sandal Seminar, Bangalore, 7-8 February, 1977. Myforest, Special Issue. pub Karnataka Forest Dept, Bangalore.
An S., Lee A.Y., Lee C.S., Kim D.W., Hahm J.H., Kim K.J., Moon K.C., Won Y.H., Ro Y.S., Eun H.C. (2005) "Contact Dermatitis 53(6) , 320-323.
Abstract: The purpose
of this study is to determine the frequency of responses to selected
fragrances in patients with suspected fragrance allergy and to evaluate
the risk factors. 9 dermatology departments of university hospitals have
participated in this study for the past 1 year. To determine allergic
response to fragrances, 18 additional fragrances in addition to the
Korean standard and a commercial fragrance series were patch-tested in
patients with suspecting cosmetic contact dermatitis. Over 80% of the
patients were women, and the most common site was the face. Cinnamic
alcohol and sandalwood oil (Santalum album L.) showed high frequencies
of positive responses. Of the specific fragrances, ebanol, alpha-isomethyl-ionone
(methyl ionone-gamma) and Lyral (hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexane
carboxdaldehyde) showed high positive responses. We compared the results
obtained during this study with those of other studies and concluded
that including additional fragrance allergens may be useful for the
detection of fragrance allergy.
Ananthapadmanabha H.S. (2000) “The present status of sandalwood in India & Australia” PAFAI Journal 2, 33-36.
Angadi, V. G. & Anathapadmanabha H.S. (1988). “Variations in isoenzyme pattern associated with spike disease in sandal.” Indian Journal Of Forestry 11(1), 37-38.
Anil, V. S. and K. S. Rao (2000). “Calcium-mediated signaling during sandalwood somatic embryogenesis. Role for exogenous calcium as second
messenger.” Plant Physiology August 2000 123(4), 1301-1311.
Anon (1999) “Tree farming: More on sandalwood cultivation: Economics of sandalwood plantations.” Agric. & Industry Survey, Mar/April pp30-32.
Anon (1997) “Sandalwood Oil Crop Suffers Burn” HerbalGram 41, 54.
Anonis D.P. (1998) “Sandalwood & Sandalwood Compounds” Perf. & Flav. 23(5), 19-24.
Bagchi, S. K. & Veerendra H.C.S. “Variation and relationship in developmental growth phases of Santalum album after pruning.” Indian Forester 117(12), 1053-1058.
Bajgrowicz J.A. & Frater G. (2000) "Chiral recognition of sandalwood odourants." Enatiomer 5(3-4), 225-234.
Abstract: Looking for more efficient sandalwood oil smelling compounds, new campholenic aldehyde derivatives with rigidifying cyclopropane rings were prepared. For some of them, having the lowest odor threshold ever measured for this type of odorants and a very appreciated scent, close to that of the scarce natural sandalwood oils, pure stereoisomers were obtained and their olfactory propertie were evaluated. Thus acquired structure-odor relationship data, together with consolidated and completed previous knowledge on structurally different sandalwood-smelling compounds, allowed to propose new models of the sandalwood olfactophore.
Banerjee S., Ecavade A. Rao A.R. (1993) “Modulatory influence of sandalwood oil on mouse hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity and acid soluble sulpydryl level” Cancer Lett 68(2), 105-9.
Abstract: The effect of the oil from the wood of Santalum album on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and acid soluble sulphydryl (SH) levels in the liver of adult male Swiss albino mice was investigated. Oral feeding by gavage to mice each day with 5 and 15 microliters sandalwood oil for 10 and 20 days exhibited an increase in GST activity in time- and dose-responsive manners. Feeding a dose of 5 microliters sandalwood oil for 10 and 20 days caused, respectively, a 1.80-fold (P < 0.001) and 1.93-fold (P < 0.001) increase in GST enzyme activity, while feeding a dose of 15 microliters of the oil per day for 10 and 20 days induced, respectively, 4.73-fold (P < 0.001) and 6.10-fold (P < 0.001) increases in the enzyme's activity. In addition, there were 1.59-fold (P < 0.001) and 1.57 (P < 0.001) increases in acid-soluble SH levels in the hepatic tissue of the mice following feeding of the oil at the dose levels of 5 and 15 microliters for 10 days. Furthermore, mice fed on a diet
containing 1% 2(3)-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (positive control) also showed an increase in hepatic GST activity and SH levels. Enhancement of GST activity and acid-soluble SH levels are suggestive of a possible chemopreventive action of sandalwood oil on carcinogenesis through a blocking mechanism.
Barret D.R. (1989) “Santalum abum (Indian Sandalwood) Literature Review” Mulga Research Centre Report No 3. Perth. Curtin University of Technology.
Barrett, D. R. & Fox J.E.D. (1994). “Early growth of Santalum album in relation to shade.” Australian Journal of Botany 42(1), 83-93.
Barrett, D. R. & D. Fox J.E.D. (1997). “Santalum album: Kernel composition,
morphological and nutrient characteristics of pre-parasitic seedlings under various nutrient regimes.” Annals of Botany 79(1), 59-66.
Bapat, V. A. & Rao P.S. (1984). “Regulatory factors for in vitro multiplication of
sandalwood tree (Santalum album): 1. Shoot bud regeneration and somatic embryogenesis in hypocotyl cultures.” Proceedings Of The Indian Academy Of Sciences Plant Sciences 93(1), 19-28.
Bapat, V. A. & Rao P.S. (1988). “Sandalwood plantlets from synthetic seeds.” Plant Cell Reports 7(6), 434-436.
Bapat, V. A., Fulzele D.P., et al. (1990). “Production of sandalwood somatic embryos in bioreactors.” Current Science 59(15), 746-748.
Bapat, V. A. & Rao P.S. (1992). “Biotechnological approaches for sandalwood (Santalum album L.) micropropagation.” Indian Forester 118(1), 48-54.
Bapat, V. A., Iyer R.K., et al. (1996). “Effect of cyanobacterial extract on somatic embryogenesis in tissue cultures of sandalwood (Santalum album).” Journal of Medicinal & Aromatic Plant Sciences 18(1), 10-14.
Benencia F. & Courreges M.C. (1999) “Antiviral activity of sandalwood oil against herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2.” Phytomed. 6(2), 119-23.
Abstract: Sandalwood oil, the essential oil of Santalum album L., was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2. It was found that the replication of these viruses was inhibited in the presence of the oil. This effect was dose-dependent and more pronounced against HSV-1. A slight diminution of the effect was observed at higher multiplicity of infections. The oil was not virucidal and showed no cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested.
Beyer A., Wolschann P., Becker A., Pranka E. & Buchbauer G. (1988) "Conformational calculations in odiferous molecules of sandalwood." Montash. Chem. 119, 711.
Beyer A., Wolschann P., Becker A., Pranka E. & Buchbauer G. (1988) "Conformational calculations in sandalwood odour molecules" Flav. Frag. J. 3, 173.
Bhaskar, V. (1992). “”Pollination biology and fertilization in Santalum album L.
(Santalaceae).” Flora Jena 187(1-2), 73-78.
Bhaskar V. & Swami Rao N. (1999) “Vegetative and physico-anatomical traits and their relation heartwood content in small leaved and large leaved forms of sandal tree (Santalum album L.).” PAFAI Journal 1, 33-38.
Bhattacharya, A. & Lakshmi S.G. (1999). “Isolation and characterization of PR1 homolog from the genomic DNA of sandalwood (Santalum album L.).” Current Science 77(7), 958-961.
Bhattacharya, A. & Sita G.L. (1998). “cDNA cloning and characterization of a proline (or hydroxyproline)-rich protein from Santalum album L.” Current Science 75(7), 697-701.
Bieri S., Monastyrskaia K. & Schilling B. (2004) "Olfactory receptor neuron profiling using sandalwood odourants" Chem Senses 29(6), 483-487.
Abstract: The mammalian olfactory system can discriminate between volatile molecules with subtle differences in their molecular structures. Efforts in synthetic chemistry have delivered a myriad of smelling compounds of different qualities as well as many molecules with very similar olfactive properties. One important class of molecules in the fragrance industry are sandalwood odorants. Sandalwood oil and four synthetic sandalwood molecules were selected to study the activation profile of endogenous olfactory receptors when exposed to compounds from the same odorant family. Dissociated rat olfactory receptor neurons were exposed to the sandalwood molecules and the receptor activation studied by monitoring fluxes in the internal calcium concentration. Olfactory receptor neurons were identified that were specifically stimulated by sandalwood compounds. These neurons expressed olfactory receptors that can discriminate between sandalwood odorants with slight differences in their molecular structures. This is the first study in which an important class of perfume compounds was analyzed for its ability to activate endogenous olfactory receptors in olfactory receptor neurons.
Bock J. (2003) “Sandalwood oil’s effect on the autonomic nervous system” Original Internist 3/1/2003.
Abstract: The hypothesis is sandalwood oil causes a decrease in sympathetic tone as accessed by patients with Heart Rate Variation (HRV), blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure) and pulse rate.
Bohlmann F. & Zedro C. (1968) “Isolierung von (-)-a-santalal aus Piqueria Trinerva” Tetrahedr. Lett. 1533.
Brand, J.E. 1994. “Genotypic variation in Santalum album.” Sandalwood Research Newsletter 2, 2-4..
Braun N.A., Meier M., Kohlenberg B., Valder C. & Neugebauer M. (2003) “Santalum spicatum (R.Br.) A. DC. (Santalaceae) – nor-helifolenal and acorenol isomers: isolation & biogenic considerations.” J. Essen. Oil. Res. 15, 381-386.
Braun N.A., Meier M., Schmaus G., Hölscher B. & Pickenhagen “Enantioselectivity in odour perception: synthesis & olfactory properties of iso-b-bisabolol, a new natural product” Helv. Chim. Acta 86, 2698-2708.
Brunke E.-J. & Hammerschmidt F.-J. (1980) “New Constituents of East Indian Sandalwood oil”. Proceedings of VIII Congress Intl. Des Huiles Essentielles Oct 1980 Pub. 1982 Fedarom.
Brunke E-J. & Rojahn W. (1980) “Sandalwood Oil” Dragoco Report 5, 127-135.
Brunke E-J (1983) “Woody Aroma Chemicals” Dragoco Report 6/1983 p146
Brunke E-J. & Hammerschmidt F.-J. (1988) “Constituents of East Indian Sandalwood Oil – an eighty year old stabilty test” Dragoco Report 4/1988 pp107-113.
Brunke E.J. & Schmaus (1995) “New active odour constituents in Sandalwood Oil: part 2: Isolation, structural elucidation and synthesis of nor-a-trans-bergamotenone” Dragoco Report 6/1995 p245-257.
Brunke, E. J., Vollhardt J., et al. (1995). “Cyclosantalal and Epicyclosantalal-New Sesquiterpene Aldehydes from East Indian Sandalwood Oil.” Flavour and Fragrance Journal 10(3), 211-219
Brunke E-J, Fahlbusch K-G, Schmaus G & Volhart (1997) “The chemistry of
sandalwood odour – a review of the last 10 years”. In Rivista Ital. EPOS (Actes des 15emes Journeés Internationales Huilles Essentielles; Digne-les-Baines, France 5-7th Sept 1996 special issue 01/97) pp49-83.
Brunke E.J. & Tumbrink L. (1986) "First total synthesis of spirosantalol." Progress in Essential Oil Research pp321-327.
Brunke E.-J. Hammerschmidt F.-J. & Struwe H. (1980) "(+)-epi-Santalol Isolierung aus Sandelholzol und Partialsynthese aus (+) -alpha-Santalol. Tetrahedron Lett. 2405.
Brunke E.-J. & Klein E. (1982) "Chemistry of Sandalwood Fragrance" In Fragrance Chemistry. The Science of Smell, Academic Press NY p397.
Buchbauer G., Stappen I., Pretterklieber C & Wolschann P. (2004) “Structure–activity relationships of sandalwood odorants: synthesis and odor of tricyclo β-santalol” Eur J Med Chem 39(12), 1039-1046.
Abstract: In a series of structure–odor relationship investigations the synthesis of a new tricyclic β-santalol derivative is described. The product of a multi-step synthesis appears in an olfactive evaluation more or less odorless,
may be slightly creamy but definitely with no sandalwood odor. This modification with a bulky aliphatic bridge in the neighbourhood of the quaternary C3-atom demonstrated the sensitivity of sandalwood odor on the
structure of β-santalol analogues.
Buchbauer G., Winiwarter S. & Wolschann P. (1992) "Surface comparisons of some odour molecules: conformational calculations on sandalwood odour V. J. Comput. Aided Mol. Des. 6(6), 583-592.
Abstract: Molecular surface comparison seems to be a very suitable tool for the investigation of small differences between biologically active and inactive compounds of the same structural type. A fast method for such comparisons, based on volume matching followed by the estimation of comparable surface dots, is presented and applied on a few selected sandalwood odour molecules.
Castro J.M., Linares-Palomino P.J., Salido S., Altarejos J., Nogueras & Sanchez A. (2005) "Enantiospecific synthesis, separation & olefactory evaluation of all diastereomers of a homologuee of the sandalwood odournt Polysantol." Tetrahedron 61(47), 11192-11203.
Abstract. The four stereoisomers of (5E)-4,4-dimethyl-6-(2′,2′,3′-trimethylcyclopent-3′-en-1′-yl)-hex-5-en-3-ol, a homologue of the valuable sandalwood-type odorant Polysantol®, were enantiospecifically synthesized from (+)- and (−)-α-pinene, through (−)- and (+)-campholenic aldehyde, by aldol condensation with 3-pentanone, deconjugative α-methylation and reduction. The mixtures of epimeric alcohols obtained after reduction were separated by means of derivatization with (−)-(1S)-camphanic chloride. The enantiomerically pure final products were evaluated organoleptically.
Chhabra, S. K. & Rao A.R. (1993). “Postnatal modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in liver of mouse pups following translactational exposure to sandalwood oil.” Nutrition Research 13(10), 1191-1202.
Christenson P.A., Secord N. & Willis B.J. (1981) Phytochemistry 20(5), 1139-1141.
Abstract: An analysis of East Indian sandalwood oil (Santalum album) has resulted in the isolation and identification of trans-β-santalol and epi-cis-β- santalol.
Choudhuri J.C.B. (1963) "Sandalwood tree & its diseases." Indian Forester 89(7), 456-462.
Courreges B.F. (1999). "Antiviral activity of sandalwood oil against Herpes simplex viruses- 1 and 2." Phytomedicine 6, 119-123.
Demole E., Demole C. & Enggist P. (1976) “A chemical investigation of volatile constituents of volatile constituents of East Indian Sandalwood oil (Santalum album L.)” Helv. Chim. Acta 59,737.
Desai, V. B., Hiremath R.D., et al. (1991). “On the pharmacological screening of HESP and sandalwood oils.” Indian Perfumer 35(2), 69-70.
Dey S. (2002) “Mass cloning of Santalum album L. through somatic embryogenesis: scale up in bioreactor.” Sandalwood Research Newsletter (Australia), 13, 1-3.
Dijkstra J. & Hiruki C. (1974) “A histochemical study on sandal (Santalum album) affected with spike disease and its diagnostic value.” Netherlands J. of Plant Pathology 80(2), 37-47.
Dijkstra J. & Lee P.E. (1972) “Transmission by dodder of sandal spike disease and the accompanying mycoplasma-like organisms via Vinca rosea.” Netherlands J. of Plant Pathology 78(5), 218-224.
Dwivedi C., Abu Ghazaleh A. (1997) “Chemopreventive effects of Sandalwood oil on skin papillomas in mice” Eur J Cancer Prev 6(4), 399-401.
Abstract: The essential oil, emulsion or paste of sandalwood (Santalum
album L.) has been used in India as an ayurvedic medicinal agent for the treatment of inflammatory and eruptive skin diseases. In this investigation, the chemopreventive effects of sandalwood oil (5% in acetone, w/v)
on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-(DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-promoted skin papillomas, and TPA-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in CD1 mice were studied.
Sandalwood oil treatment significantly decreased papilloma incidence by 67%, multiplicity by 96%, and TPA-induced ODC activity by 70%. This oil could be an effective chemopreventive agent against skin cancer.
Dwivedi C. & Zhang Y. (1999) “Sandalwood oil prevent skin tumour development in CD1 mice.” Eur J Cancer Prev 8(5),449-55.
Abstract: Sandalwood oil (SW oil) has been used for the treatment of
inflammatory and eruptive skin diseases. In the present study, the chemopreventive effects of SW oil on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-promoted
skin tumour development and TPA-induced ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity in CD1 mice were investigated. Female CD1 mice (5-6 weeks old) were divided in different groups, having 30 mice in each group. One week after topical application of DMBA (200 nmole in 100 microl acetone) alone or with SW oil at different concentrations (100 microl, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75, 5% in acetone), at different times (0.5, 1, 2 h) before DMBA, the mice were treated topically with TPA (5 nmole in 100 microl acetone) alone or with SW oil at different concentrations (100 microl, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75, 5% in acetone) at different times (0.5, 1, 2 h) before TPA applications twice a week for 20 weeks. The mice were weighed and papillomas counted weekly. The results indicate that SW oil pre-treatment decreased the papilloma incidence and multiplicity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. The pre-treatment with 5% SW oil (100 microl) 1 h before DMBA and TPA treatments provided a maximum of 67% and 96% decrease in papilloma incidence and multiplicity, respectively, after 20 weeks of promotion. The mice pre-treated with SW oil at all concentrations and time period before TPA had significantly lower ODC activity than the group treated with TPA alone. The data suggest that SW oil
could be an effective chemopreventive agent against chemically-induced skin cancer.
Dwivedi C, Guan X, Harmsen WL, et al. (2003) "Chemopreventive effects of alpha-santalol on skin tumor development in CD-1 and SENCAR mice." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 12,151–6.
Erligman A. (2001) “Sandalwood Oils” Int. J. of Aromatherapy 11(4), 186-192.
Fernandes, P. C., Bapat V.A. et al. (1992). “In vivo germination of encapsulated somatic embryos of Santalum album L. (Sandalwood).” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 30(9), 839-841.
Fernandes, P., Bapat V.A., et al. (1994). “Effect of crushed seed homogenate on germination of synthetic seeds of Santalum album L.” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 32(11), 840-841.
Fernandes, P. C., Bapat V.A., et al. (1994). “Investigations on the development of somatic seeds of Santalum album L. (Sandalwood).” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B Biological Sciences 64(1), 1-8.
Florento, A. (1997) “Sandalwood Oil Faces Trouble as Crop is Destroyed by Fire” Chemical Marketing Reporter March 31, 1997.
Fox JED. (2000) “Sandalwood: the royal tree” Biologist London 47(1), 31-34.
Fragrance raw materials monographs (1974): “Sandalwood oil, East
Indian”Food & Cosmetics Toxicology 12(7-8), 989-990.
Hatt H.H. & Schoenfeld R. (1956) “Some seed fats of the Santalaceae family.” 7(2), 130-133.
Heissler D. & Riehl J.-J. (1980) “Synthesis with benzenesulfenyl chloride. On the structure of a C12H18 hydrocarbon from East Indian sandalwood oil” Tetrahedron Letters 21(49), 4711-4714.
Abstract: The tetracyclic hydrocarbon was synthesized by means of the electrophilic addition of benzenesulfenyl chloride to an appropriately substituted methylenenorbornene. The synthetic methodology used to prepare this letter compound includes a mild enol ether hydrolysis with acidic silica gel.
Herbert C. Kretschmar, Zachary J. Barneis and William F. Erman (1970) “The isolation and synthesis of a novel tetracyclic ether from East Indian sandalwood oil. A facile intramolecular prins reaction” Tetrahedron Letters 11(1), 37-40.
Hill R., Harne R.W. & Nayar R.M. (1969) “Mycoplasma-like bodies associated with sandal spike” Nature 224, 1121-1122.
Hongratanaworakit T. Dissertation, "Effects of fractions of sandalwood oil on human physiological parameters by inhalation and massage." Vienna, Austria. June 2001. (through Bock J. (2003)).
Hongratanaworakit T., Heuberger E., Buchbauer G. (2000). “Effects of sandalwood oil & alpha-santalol on humans I: Inhalation, poster presentation, 31st ISEO, Sept 2000, Hamburg, Germany.
Hongratanaworakit T., Heuberger E., Buchbauer G. (2000). ““Effects of sandalwood oil & alpha-santalol on humans II: percutaneous administration, poster presentation, 31st ISEO, Sept 2000, Hamburg, Germany.
Hopkins C.Y. & Chisholm M.J. (1969) "Fatty acid composition of some Santalaceae seed oils." Phytochem. 8, 161-165.
Heuberger E., Hongratanaworakit T., Buchbauer G. (2001) “Biological properties of the essential oil of East Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.) and its main compounds alpha- and beta-santalol.” Oral presentation 4éme Symposium Internat. D’Aromatherapie Scientifique, March 2001, Grasse, France.
Heuberger E., Hongratanaworakit T., Buchbauer G. (2001) “Die Wirkung von Sandelholzöl auf das autonome Nervensystem und die subjective Befindlichkeit.” Vortrag 3, Internat. Primavera Life-Kongress Oct 2001.
Herzogenaurach, Deutschland.Hongratanaworakit T., Heuberger E., Buchbauer G. (2004) “Evaluation of the effects of East Indian sandalwood oil and alpha-santalol on humans after transdermal absorption.” Planta Med 70(1), 3-7.
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of East Indian sandalwood oil (Santalum album, Santalaceae) and alpha-santalol on physiological parameters as well as on mental and emotional conditions in healthy human subjects after transdermal absorption. In order to exclude any olfactory stimulation, the inhalation of the fragrances was prevented by breathing masks. Eight physiological parameters, i. e., blood oxygen saturation, blood pressure, breathing rate, eye-blink rate, pulse rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, and surface electromyogram were recorded. Subjective mental and emotional condition was assessed by means of rating scales. While alpha-santalol caused significant physiological changes which are interpreted in terms of a relaxing/sedative effect, sandalwood oil provoked physiological deactivation but behavioral activation. These findings are likely to represent an uncoupling of physiological and behavioral arousal processes by sandalwood oil.
Howes M.-J. R., Simmonds M.S.J. & Kite G.C. (2003) “Evaluation of the quality of sandalwood essential oils by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry” Journal of Chromatography A, 1028(2), 307-312.
Abstract: Trade and historic oils from ‘sandalwoods’, labelled as Amyris balsamifera, Eremophila mitchelli, Fusanus acuminatus (= Santalum acuminatum), Santalum album, S. austrocaledonicum, S. latifolium, S. spicatum and S. yasi, were assessed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Using GC–MS, none of the oils assessed complied with the internationally recognised standard of a 90% santalol content, and only about half of the trade sandalwood oils met with recent International Organisation for Standardisation standards. The majority of trade oils, reportedly from S. album, contained approximately 50–70% santalols (Z-α and Z-β). Thus, the internationally recognised specification (90% santalols) for S. album requires re-evaluation by more efficient analysis methods. In view of the issues associated with the quality of sandalwood oils being traded, specifications of ≥43% Z-α-santalol and ≥18% Z-β-santalol for S. album oil estimated by GC–MS are suggested. GC–MS are recommended as it assists with authentication and quality control issues associated with sandalwood oils.
Cropwatch comments: The authors seem confused. The 90% santalols figure is largely a relict of the past from when wet chemical determinations were carried out by the acetylation method on Sandalwood oils (e.g. by EOA Determination 1B as set out in EOA Spec. No 103), and this result is not directly comparable to information revealed by modern high performance capillary GC/MS determinations. The latter can break down the identity of a number of santalol isomers within sandalwood oil, and can help identify other sesquiterpene alcohols which might have previously have been included with the total santatols figure by the wet chemical procedure. Thus, by high performance capillary gas chromatography, a different story unfolds, and some 16 years previously, Verghese et al. (1990a) established that in Sandalwood oil E.I. the normal range is as follows: a-santalol 40-45% and b-santalol 17-27% [Lawrence (1991) q.v.]. The ISO standard ISO 3518 (2002) for sandalwood oil is surely taken by most workers as the current standard for the commodity and sets the limits on the Z-a-santalol content to 41-55% and the Z-b-santalol content to 16-24%. Cropwatch does not accept therefore that the situation for steam distilled sandalwood oils is quite as Howes et al. present it. Sandalwood extracts – via the benzene (etc.) extraction of sandalwood powder to produce sandalwood concrete, followed by methanolic extraction to produce a so-called ‘oil’ – can however produce high santalol containing sandalwood commodities in higher yield than steam distillation, which are sometimes traded as ‘oils’ or mixed in with the normal oil. Co-distillation technology with high boiling solvents (which are subsequently removed) can also produce high santalol containing sandalwood ‘oils’. East African sandalwood oil and certain fractions of Australian sandalwood oil have also frequently been added as adulterants to traded East Indian sandalwood oils. The analyst should be aware therefore that not everything offered as sandalwood oil is as necessarily ‘100% derived from the botanical source’ – but this is hardly news to any experienced essential oil analyst!
Husain M., Ponnuswamy A.M. & Ponnuswamy P.K. (1982) “An innovation in the vegetative propagation of sandal (Santalum album L.).” Indian J. Forest. 5, 1-7.
ISO 3518 Oil of Sandalwood 2nd edn 2002. pub. ISO.
Geneva 2002. Iyengar A.V.V. (1972) “Control of Sandal spike” Current Science 41(9), 318-319.
Iyenger A.V.V. (1972) "Some aspects of sandal spike disease" J. Scient. Ind. Res. 31, 331-342.
Jain SH., Angadi VG., Ravikumar G., Thegrajan KS & Shankaranarayana (1999) “Studies on cultivation & chemical utilisation of sandal (Santalum album L.).” PAFAI Journal 1, 49-53.
Jie, M. S. F. L. K., Pasha M.K. et al. (1996). “Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of santalbic acid and a study of triacylglycerol species in Santalum album (Linn.) seed oil.” Lipids 31(10), 1083-1089.
Jirovetz L, Buchbauer G, & Jager W. (1992) “Analysis of fragrance compounds in blood samples of mice by gas chromatography, mass spectrometery, GC/FTIR and GC/AES after inhalation of sandalwood oil.” Biomed. Chromatography 6, 133-134.
Jirovetz L., et al. (1988). “Differentiation of double bond isomers of sesquiterpene alcohols in East Indian sandalwood oil by means of GC-MS and GC-FTIR: Dihydrosantalols.” Spectroscopy 6(5-6), 283-294.
John M.D, Paul T.M. & Jaiswal P.K. (1991) “Detection of adulteration of polyethylene glycol in oil of sandalwood” Indian Perfumer 35, 186-187.
Jyothi, P. V., J. B. Atluri, et al. (1991). “Pollination ecology of Santalum album (Santalaceae).” Tropical Ecology 32(1), 98-104.
Kapoor M.L. (1981) “A technique for chromosome count from developing leaf
buds of induced tetraploids & diploid Santalum album L.” Indian Forester 107, 290-300.
Kababick, J. P. (1996). “Evaluation on incense purity using simultaneous steam distillation-extraction and HRGC analysis.” Journal of High Resolution Chromatography 19(4), 241-242.
Kaur M., Agarwal C., Singh R.P., Guan X., Dwivedi C., Agarwal R. (2005) "Skin cancer chemopreventive agent alpha-santalol, induces apoprotic death of human epidermoid carcinoma A 431 cells via caspase activation together with dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potentail & cytochrome c release." Carcinogenesis 26(2), 369-380.
Abstract: alpha-Santalol, an active component of sandalwood oil, has been studied in detail in recent years for its skin cancer preventive efficacy in murine models of skin carcinogenesis; however, the mechanism of its efficacy is not defined. Two major biological events responsible for the clonal expansion of transformed/initiated cells into tumors are uncontrolled growth and loss of apoptotic death. Accordingly, in the present study, employing human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, we assessed whether alpha-santalol causes cell growth inhibition and/or cell death by apoptosis. Treatment of cells with alpha-santalol at concentrations of 25-75 microM resulted in a concentration- and a time-dependent decrease in cell number, which was largely due to cell death. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) stained cells revealed that alpha-santalol induces a strong apoptosis as early as 3 h post-treatment, which increases further in a concentration- and a time-dependent manner up to 12 h. Mechanistic studies showed an involvement of caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage through activation of upstream caspase-8 and -9. Further, the treatment of cells with alpha-santalol also led to disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release into the cytosol, thereby implicating the involvement of the mitochondrial pathway. Pre-treatment of cells with caspase-8 or -9 inhibitor, pan caspase inhibitor or cycloheximide totally blocked alpha-santalol-caused caspase-3 activity and cleavage, but only partially reversed apoptotic cell death. This suggests involvement of both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways, at least under caspase inhibiting conditions, in alpha-santalol-caused apoptosis. Together, this study for the first time identifies the apoptotic effect of alpha-santalol, and defines the mechanism of apoptotic cascade activated by this agent in A431 cells, which might be contributing to its overall cancer preventive efficacy in mouse skin cancer models.
Kawanishi Y., Nin K. & Toyoda K. (2004) “The influence on the autonomic nervous system of a preference for the smell of sandalwood” Aroma Research
Khan M.M.., Faroqui A.A., Vasundhara M. & Srinisappa K.N. (1999) “Clonal propagation of sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) PAFAI Journal 1, 20-24.
Kim T.H., Ito H., Hayashi K., Hasegawa T., Machguchi T., & Yoshida T. (2005) "Aromatic constituents from the heartwood of Santalum album." Chem Bull Pharm (Tokyo) 53(6), 641-646. Abstract: A phytochemical investigation of the polar constituents in the heartwood of Indian Santalum album L. resulted in the isolation of three new neolignans (1-3) and a new aromatic ester (4), along with 14 known components. The structures of the new compounds (1-4) were established using spectroscopic methods.
Kim T.H., Ito H., Hatano T., Haswegawa T., Akiba A., Machiguchi T., Yoshida T. (2005) "Bisabolane & santalane-type sequiterpemoids from Santalum album of East Indian origin" J. Nat Products 68(12), 1805-1808.
Abstract: Six new bisabolane-type (1-3) and santalane-type (4-6) sesquiterpenoids, together with (+)-alpha-nuciferol, (+)-citronellol, and geraniol, were isolated from the heartwood of Santalum album of Indian origin. Their structures, including two bisabolol diastereomers (1, 2), were established on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation.
Kovatechva A., Buchbauer G., Golbraikh A. & Wolschann P. (2003) "QSAR modelling of alpha-campholenic derivatives with sandalwood odour" J. Chem. Inf. Comp. Sci 43, 259-266.
Kretschmar H.C., Barneis Z.J. & Erman W.F. (1970) “The isolation & synthesis of a novel tetracyclic ether from East Indian sandalwood oil. A facile intramolecular Prins reaction.” Tetrahedron Letters 11(1), 37-40.
Kulkami H.D. & Srithmathi R.A. (1981) “Polyembryony in the genus Santalum L.” Indian Forester 107(11), 704-706.
Kuar M., Agarwal C., Singh RP., Guan X., Dwivedi C. & Agarwal R. (2005) “Skin cancer chemopreventive agent, alpha-santalol, induces apoptotic death of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells via caspase activation together with dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release.” Carcinogenesis 26(2), 369-80.
Abstract: alpha-Santalol, an active component of sandalwood oil, has been studied in detail in recent years for its skin cancer preventive efficacy in murine models of skin carcinogenesis; however, the mechanism of its
efficacy is not defined. Two major biological events responsible for the clonal expansion of transformed/initiated cells into tumors are uncontrolled growth and loss of apoptotic death. Accordingly, in the present study, employing human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells, we assessed whether alpha-santalol causes cell growth inhibition and/or cell death by apoptosis. Treatment of cells with alpha-santalol at concentrations of 25-75 microM resulted in a concentration- and a time-dependent decrease in cell number, which was largely due to cell death. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) stained cells revealed that alpha-santalol induces a strong apoptosis as early as 3 h post-treatment, which increases further in a concentration- and a time-dependent manner up to 12 h. Mechanistic studies showed an involvement of caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage through activation of upstream caspase-8 and -9. Further, the treatment of cells with alpha-santalol also led to disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release into the cytosol, thereby implicating the involvement of the mitochondrial pathway. Pre-treatment of cells with caspase-8 or -9 inhibitor, pan caspase inhibitor or cycloheximide totally blocked alpha-santalol-caused caspase-3 activity and cleavage, but only partially reversed apoptotic cell death. This suggests involvement of both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways, at least under caspase inhibiting conditions, in alpha-santalol-caused apoptosis. Together, this study for the first time identifies the apoptotic effect of alpha-santalol, and defines the mechanism of apoptotic cascade activated by this agent in A431 cells, which might be contributing to its overall cancer preventive efficacy in mouse skin cancer models.
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Naqvi A.A., Singh A.K. & Mandal S. (1999) “Quality evaluation of Sandalwood (Santalum album) oil grown in northern parts of India. Indian Perfumer 43, 67-69.
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Nayar R. (1988) "Cultivation, improvement, exploitation & protection of Santalum album Linn." Advances in Forestry Research in India 2, 117-151.
Ochi T., Shibata H., Higuti T., Kodama K.H., Kusumi T., Takaishi Y "Anti-Heliobacter pylori compounds from Santalum album."J. Nat Products 68(6), 819-824.
new sesquiterpenes, (Z)-2beta-hydroxy-14-hydro-beta-santalol (1),
(Z)-2alpha-hydroxy-albumol (2), 2R-(Z)-campherene-2,13-diol (3),
(Z)-campherene-2beta,13-diol (4), (Z)-7-hydroxynuciferol (5), and
(Z)-1beta-hydroxy-2-hydrolanceol (6), together with five known
compounds, (Z)-alpha-santalol (7), (Z)-beta-santalol (8), (Z)-lanceol
(9), alpha-santaldiol (10), and beta-santaldiol (11), were isolated from
Santalum album, by using bioassay-guided fractionation for
Helicobacter pylori. The structures were determined by extensive
NMR studies. The absolute configuration of compound 3 was determined by
a modified Mosher method. The crude extracts as well as the isolated
compounds showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori.
Especially, compounds 7 and 8 have strong anti-H. pylori activities
against a clarithromycin-resistant strain (TS281) as well as other
Ohloff G. (1994) Scent & Fragrances Springer-Verlag p175-178.
Okugawa H., Ueda R., Matsumoto K., Kawanishi K., Kato A. (1995). “Effect of a-Santalol and b-Santalol from sandalwood on the central nervous system in mice.” Phytomed 2 (2), 119-126.
Parry E.J. Sandalwood Oil Pub. Govt. of Mysore (date unknown).
Parthasarathi K., Rangaswamy C.R. & Anguah V.C. (1985) "Leaf peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase & ertrase isoenzyme pattern in ten sandalwood (Santalum album) types showing variation in leasf pattern." Indian Forester 111, 441-449.
Parthasarathi K., Rangaswamy C.R., Jayaraman K & Rao PS (1973) “Studies on sandal spike. Part X. Deoxyribonuclease & ribonuclease activities and nucleic acid levels in sandal (Santalum album Linn.) affected by spike mycoplasma” Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences 77(3), 131-136.
Parthasarathi K. & Venkatesan K.R. (1982) "Sandal spike disease" Current Science 51(5), 225-230.
Parthasarathi K. et al. (1973) "Hosts of sandalwood." Current Science 43(1), 20.
Pasha, M. K. & Ahmad F. (1993). “Synthesis of oxygenated fatty acid esters from santalbic acid ester.” Lipids 28(11), 1027-1031.
Prakash NA, Farooqi AA & Vasundhara M. (1999) “Studies on root parasitism and nutrition of sandalwood (Santalum album L.) PAFAI Journal 1, 25-29.
Radomiljac, A. M., J. A. McComb, et al. (1998). “Xylem transfer of organic solutes in Santalum album L. (Indian sandalwood) in association with legume and non-legume hosts.” Annals of Botany 82(5), 675-682.
Radomiljac, A.M., McComb J.A., Shea S.R. (1998) “Field establishment of Santalum album – the effect of the time of the introduction of a pot host (Alternanthia nana R.Br.)” Forest Ecology & Management 111 (2-3), 107-118.
Abstract: Field establishment of the root hemi-parasite Santalum album L. under large-scale plantation conditions, until recently, has been largely unsuccessful. In this experiment, the growth of S. album seedlings grown with the herbaceous pot host Alternanthera nana R. Br. for 134, 109, 84, 60 and 35 days in a nursery container prior to field establishment was examined after 11, 16 and 23 weeks in the field. S. album survival and growth was greater, and root:shoot ratio was lower for the 23 weeks for S. album seedlings grown with A. nana compared with seedlings grown without a host. Seedlings grown with A. nana for 134 days in the nursery prior to field establishment had greater stem diameter, height and root, shoot and total plant dry weight (DW) over the 23 weeks in the field than all other treatments. Seedlings grown with A. nana for 109 days in the nursery prior to field establishment had greater field survival than all other treatments. A. nana survival in the field remained high when grown with S. album for 134 and 109 days in the nursery prior to field establishment whereas survival within remaining treatments declined significantly and A. nana growth was significantly less. S. album grown with A. nana for 134 days in the nursery prior to field establishment had a lower root:shoot ratio than all other treatments at all assessments. A strong negative linear relationship exists between S. album root:shoot ratio and A. nana DW,
whereas a positive linear relationship exists between S. album DW and A. nana DW. Foliar phosphorus and sodium concentrations for S. album were lower and foliar potassium concentration higher when seedlings were grown with A. nana for 134 days in the nursery prior to field establishment compared with the remaining treatments at the 16-week assessment. The period of the S. album:A. nana association in the nursery significantly influenced S. album survival and growth following field planting.
Radomiljac, A. M., J. A. McComb, et al. (1999). Intermediate host influences on the root hemi-parasite Santalum album L. biomass partitioning. Forest Ecology and Management 113(2-3), 143-153.
Radomiljac, A. M., J. A. McComb, et al. (1999). Gas exchange and water relations of the root hemi-parasite Santalum album L. in association with
legume and non-legume hosts. Annals of Botany 83(3), 215-224.
Rangaswamy K.T. & Jayarajan R. (1998) “The distribution of spike disease in the forests of Tamil Nadu” Current Research University of Agricultural
Sciences Bangalore 27(4), 76-77.
Rao P. S., Bapat V.A., et al. (1984). “Regulatory factors for in vitro multiplication of sandalwood tree (Santalum album): 2. Plant regeneration in nodal and internodal stem explants and occurrence of somaclonal variations in tissue culture raised plants.” Proceedings Of The Indian National Science Academy Part B: Biological Sciences 50(2), 196-202.
Rao, P. S. & Ozias A.P. (1985). “Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in protoplast cultures of Sandalwood (Santalum album).” Protoplasma 124(1-2), 80-86.
Rao, K. S., Chrungoo N.K., et al. (1996). “Characterization of somatic
Rao P.S. & Ozias-Atkins P. (1985) "Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in protoplast cultures of sandalwood. Protoplasma 124(1-2), 80-86.
embryogenesis in sandalwood (Santalum album L.). In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology” Plant 32(3),123-128.
Remadevi, O. K., Muthukrishnan R., et al. (1997). “Epidemic outbreak of lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr.), on Santalum album (Sandal) and its control.” Indian Forester 123(2), 143-147.
Ross M.S. (1983). Bibliography on Sandalwood, Santalum album. Unpublished - copy held at University of Oxford, UK.
Cropwatch comments: A bibliography of nearly 800 references & papers, many of them reviewed (& much of the subject matter concerning splike disease) drawn from references within the former Commonwealth Forestry Institute at Oxford, and from other sources
Roychoudhuri SP & Verma A. (1980) “Sandalwood spike. ” PAFAI Journal 1, 25-29.
Ruzicka L. & Thomann G. (1935) "Polyterpene und polyterpenoide XCIII. Uber die Konstitution des beta-Santalols und des beta-Santalenes. Helv. Chim. Acta 18, 355.
Sahai, A. & Shivanna K.R. (1984). “Seed germination, seedling growth and haustorial induction in Santalum album, a semi-root parasite.” Proceedings Of The Indian Academy Of Sciences: Plant Sciences 93(5), 571-580.
Sato K., Miyamoto O., Inoue S., Honda K. (1980) "Stereospecific synthesis of beta-santalol" Proceedings the VIII Congres International des Huiles Essentielles, Cannes, Grasse, Oct. 1980 pub Fedarom 1982
Scartezzini, P. & E. Speroni (2000). “Review on some plants of Indian traditional medicine with antioxidant activity.” J. of Ethnopharm. 71(1-2), 23-43.
Schmaus G., Meier M., Braun N.A., Hölscher B. & Pickenhagen (2001) “Iso-b-bisabolol as a fragrance & aroma substance” WO 03/011802.Schmincke K.-H. (1985) “Sandalwood Oil” in Flavour & Fragrances of Plant Origin: (Non-Wood Forest Products 1) Food & Agricultural Organisation of the United Nation
Scott J. (1871) "Root parasitism by sandalwood." J. Agric. Hort. Soc. India 2,287.
Semmler F.W. (1908) "Zur Kenntnis der Bestandtelle atherische Ole. (Weitere Mitteilungen uber die
Semmler F.W. (1910) Zur Kenntnis der Bestandtelle atherische Ole. (Konstitution der alpha-Santalol und alpha-Santalen-Reihe: Die Konstitution der Seasquiterpenalkohole und Seaquiterpene). Ber. Dtsche. Chem. Ges. 43, 1893.
Santole C15H24O und ihre Derivative). Ber. Dtsche. Chem. Ges. 41, 1488.
Sen Sarma P.K. (1982) “Sandalwood – its Cultivation & Utilisation.” In Cultivation and Utilisation of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (eds C.K. Atal & B.M. Kapur). Regional Research Laboratory , Jammi–Tawi pp 395-405.
Shankaranarayana, K. H. & K. Parthasarathi K. (1984). “Compositional differences in sandal (Santalum album) oils from young and mature trees and in the sandal oils undergoing color change on standing.” Indian Perfumer 28(3-4), 138-141.
Shankaranarayana, K. H., Angadi V.G., et al. (1997). “A rapid method of estimating essential oil content in heartwood of Santalum album Linn.” Current Science 72(4), 241-242.
Shankaranarayana, K.H., G. Ravikumar, A.N. Rajeevalochan, K.S. Theagarajan, and C.R. Rangaswamy (1998). “Content and composition of oil from the central and transition zones of sandalwood discs. ACIAR Proceedings 84, 86–88.
Sharma R., Bajaj A.K., Singh K.G. (1987) “Sandalwood dermatitis” Int. J. Dermatol 26(9), 597.
Sheen J. & Stevens J. (2001) “Self-perceived effects of Sandalwood” Intl J. of
Aromatherapy 11(4), 213-219.
Abstract: Eight female participants used the essential oil of Santalum album, East Indian Sandalwood, as a perfume daily for a week. Their self-perceived effects were analyzed for common experiences, using the grounded theory method. Four categories of the experience were developed into an initial theory of the effects of sandalwood. It was found that sandalwood did have self-perceived effects, which varied with initial psychological state and emporal factors. The observed self-perceived effects of calming, ability to manage and well being have limited co-relation with claimed therapeutic effects. A further self-perceived effect, uplifting, was observed such that further investigation is required. This study is a demonstration of the initial steps of a holistic research model that would allow for aromatherapy, essential oils, their therapeutic effects and the experience of their use to be researched. Thus a sound scientific knowledge base for the profession of aromatherapy, relevant to its practice can be developed.
Cropwatch comments: Recommended article for therapeutic effects of sandalwood!
Shieh, J. C., Lin T.S. et al. (1990). “Essential oil yield and component variation from Santalum album wood of different age in Taiwan.” Bulletin Of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute: New Series 5(1), 45-52.
Shineberg D. They came for Sandalwood: A study of Sandalwood Trade in The SW Pacific 1830-1865 Melborn University Press 1967.
Shiri, V. & K. S. Rao K.S. (1998). “Introduction and expression of marker genes in sandalwood (Santalum album L.) following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plant Science 131(1), 53-63.
Shankaranarayana, K. H. & K. Parthasarathi K.(1984) "Synthetic sandalwood aroma chemicals." Perf. & Flav. 9(1), 17-20.
Shankaranarayana, K. H. & Kamala B.S. (1989) "Fragrant products from less obvious sandalwood oil" Perf. & Flav. 14(1), 19-21.
Shukla B.V., Ravindra M., Shukla S.V., Lahire L. & Singh D.P. (1999) “Qualitative assessment of sandalwood oil using gas chromatography” PAFAI J. 13, 41-43.
Sidheswaran P. & Ganguli S. (1997) "Sandalwood Oil Substitutes - A Review" Supplement to Cultivation & Utilisation of Arom,atic Plants CIMAP (1997).
Sindhuveerendra, H. C., S. Ramalakshmi, et al. (1999). Variation in seed characteristics in provenances of sandal (Santalum album L.). Indian Forester 125(3), 308-312.
Sita G.L. (1991) "Tissue cultured sandalwood." Current Science 61(12), 794-795.
Spreitzer, H., Roesslhuber I, et al. (1990). “Structure/odor relationships of beta-santalol analogues: E-homo-beta-santalol and E-dehydrohomo-beta-santalol.” Monatshefte Fuer Chemie 121(2-3), 195-202.
Srivinivisan V.V. Sivaramakrishnan V.R., Rangaswamy C.R., Ananathpodmanabha MS & Shankaranarayana (1995) Sandal (Santalum
album) Indian Council of Forestry Research & Education, Dehradun.
Starke J.C. (1967) "Photoallergy to sandalwood oil" Arch Dermatol 96(1), 62-63.
Subbarao, N. S., Yadav D., et al. (1990). “Nodule haustoria and microbial features of Cajanus and Pongamia parasitized by sandal (sandal wood).” Plant And Soil 128(2), 249-256.
Suriamidhardja S. (1978) "Problems on Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) silviculture & improving its production." In: Proc of 3rd Seminar on Volatile Oils, Bogor, Indonesia, July 1978. Bogor: Balai Penelitian Kimia
Swami R.N. & Srinivasa R.V. (1980) “Accelerated germination of sandal seeds (Santalum album L.) Lal Bagh J. 25, 68-69.
Thomas, S. & Balasundaran M. (1999). “Detection of sandal spike phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction.” Current Science 76(12), 1574-1576.
Uniyal, D. P., Thapliyal R.C. , et al. (1985). “Vegetative propagation of sandal (Santalum album) by root cuttings.” Indian Forester 111(3), 145-148.
Uniyal D.P., Thapliyal R.C. & Rawat M.S. (1995) "Vegetative propagation of sandal by root cuttings." Indian Forester 111(3), 145-148.
Valluri, J. V., Treat W.J., et al. (1991). “Bioreactor culture of heterotrophic sandalwood (Santalum album L.) cell suspensions utilizing a cell-lift impeller.” Plant Cell Reports 10(6-7), 366-370.
Vaze Suresh (1999) “Sandal – introductory Note” PAFAI Journal 1, 17-19.
Veerendra, H. C. S. & Sarma C.R. (1990). “Variation studies in sandal (Santalum album L.): I. Time of emergence and seedling vigor.” Indian Forester 116(7), 568-571.
Veerendra, H. C. S. & Padmanabha H.S.A. (1996). “The breeding system in sandal (Santalum album L.).” Silvae Genetica 45(4), 188-190.
Venkatesha, M. G. & Gopinath K. (1994). “Description of immature stages of a species of gt lyptapanteles (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a gregarious endoparasitoid of Amata passalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), a defoliator of sandalwood, Santalum album L. Insect Science and its Application 15(2), 161-165.
Verghese J., Sunny T.P. & Balkrishnan K.V. (1990) “-(-)-a-santalol & (-)-b-santalol concentration, a new quality determinant of East Indian
sandalwood oil.” Flavours & Fragrances J. 5, 223-226.
Walker G.T. (1968) "The chemistry of the oil of sandalwood." Perf & Essen Oil Record 59(11), 778-781.
Wang Z. & Hong X. (1991) "Comparitive GC analysis of essential oil in imported sandalwood" Zongguo Zong Yuo Za Zhi 16(1), 40-43, 64.
Abstract: The GC-fingerprint spectra of essential oils in imported sandalwood are established by the new technique of GC-relative retention value fingerprint spectrum (GC-FPS). According to the GC-FPS of samples, their chromatographic peaks, overlap ratio of peaks and eight strong peaks are studied comparatively.
Witteveen J.G. & van der Weerdt A.J.A. (1987) "Structure-odour relationships of some new synthetic sandalwood aroma chemicals - Synthesis and olefactive properties in a series of bicyclo [4.4.0] decan-3-ols. Rec Trauvase Chim., Pays-Bas 106, 29
Yusuf, R. 1999. Santalum album L. pp 161–167 In: Oyen, L.P.A., and Nguyen Xuan Dund (eds.). Plant Resources of South-East Asia Vol 19. Essential-oil
Plants. Prosea, Bogor, Indonesia.
Yemris Fointuna (2004) “Myth about sandalwood broken” The Jakarta Post 9.8.2004….
Sandalwood now only found on Timor and Sumba islands. According to the East Nusa Tenggara Statistics Office, the number of sandalwood trees is estimated to be only some 100,000 due to illegal logging.
Husain A.M.M. (1983) “Report on the Rehabilitation of Sandalwood & the trade in Nasa Tenggara Timur Indonesia. World Bank PPIPD Project Report, West Timor.
Omon, R. M. (1994). “The effects of N, P, K and NPK fertilizer on the growth of Cendana (Santalum album Linn.) in nursery of Latosol soil.” Buletin Penelitian Hutan (565), 55-64. Forest Research and Development Centre, Bogor 16001, Indonesia.
“Police seize 13.6 tons of sandalwood” The Jakarta Post 9.30.2003 KUPANG, East Nusa Tenggara:
13,645 kilograms of sandalwood allegedly smuggled from neighboring East Timor was seized, supposedly being sent to sandalwood distilling firm PT Tropicana Oil.
Walker H (1966) “The Market for Sandalwood Oil” TPI Rep. Trop. Prod. Inst. London (G22): 13.
Widiadana, Rita A. (13.03.2002) “Illegal trade in endangered species on the rise in RI” Jakarta Post 13.03.2002. Widiadana comments on the increasing trade in endangered species including trade in orchids and sandalwood.
Alpha T., Raharivelomanana P., Blanchini J.-P., Faure R. & Cambon A. (1997) “A sesquiterpenoids from Santalum austrocaledonicum var. austrocaledonicum.” Phytochemistry 46, 1237-1239.
Alpha T., Raharivelomanana P., Blanchini J.-P., Faure R. & Cambon A. (1997) “Bisabolane sesquiterpenoids from Santalum austrocaledonicum”. Phytochemistry 44, 1519-1552.
Alpha T., Raharivelomanana P., Blanchini J.-P., Faure R. & Cambon A. (1997) “Identification de deux nouveaux dihydroxyles du bisabolene a partir de santal oceanien.” In Rivista Ital. EPPOS (Actes des 15emes Journeés Internationales Huiles Essentielles: Digne-les-Bains, France., 5,6& 7 Sept 1996 Special Issue 01/97 pp84-91.
Bottin L., Verhaegen D., Tassin J., Olivieri I., Vallant A. & Bouvet J.M. (2005) “Genetic Diversity & Population Structure of an Insular tree, Santalum austrocaledonicum in New Caledonian archipelago.” Molecular Ecology 14(7), 1979-19
Abstract: We present a study of the genetic diversity and structure of a tropical tree in an insular system. Santalum austrocaledonicum is endemic to the archipelago of New Caledonia and is exploited for oil extraction from heartwood. A total of 431 individuals over 17 populations were analysed for eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 33 and the observed heterozygosity per population ranged from 0.01 in Mare to 0.74 in Ile des Pins. The genetic diversity was lowest in the most recent islands, the Loyautes, and highest in the oldest island, Grande Terre, as well as the nearby small Ile des Pins. Significant departures from panmixia were observed for some loci-population combinations (per population FIS = 0-0.03 on Grande-Terre and Ile des Pins, and 0-0.67 on Loyautes). A strong genetic differentiation among all islands was observed (FST = 0.22), and the amount of differentiation increased with geographic distance in Iles Loyaute and in Grande Terre. At both population and island levels, island age and isolation seem to be the main factors influencing the amount of genetic diversity. In particular, populations from recent islands had large average FIS that could not be entirely explained by null alleles or a Wahlund effect. This result suggests that, at least in some populations, selfing occurred extensively. Conclusively, our results indicate a strong influence of insularity on the genetic diversity and structure of Santalum austrocaledonicum.
Braun N.A., Meier M & Hammweschmidt F.-J. (2005) “New Caledonian Sandalwood – a Substitute for East Indian Sandalwood Oil?” J. Essen Oil Res 17, 477-480.
Abstract: Three qualities of New Caledonian sandalwood oil were analysed using GC and GC/MS. Eighty-four constituents were identified: 10 monoterpenes, 72 sesquiterpenes and two others. In addition b-bisabolol/epi-b-bisabolol isomers were isolated and characterised via chiral GC chromatography. Our results indicate that New Caledonian sandalwood oil is much closer related to East Indian sandalwood oil than its West Australian counterpart.
Cropwatch comments: Arguably in 2005, the world production of sandalwood oil was approx. 50 tons/annum, and the demand 200 tons/annum. How then can the authors maintain, bearing in mind New Caledonia’s very limited production capability, that this oil can be a substitute for the ever-scarcer East Indian Sandalwood oil?
Chauvin, J.P., & Y. Ehrhart. 1998. Germination of two provenances of Santalum austrocaledonicum var. austrocaledonicum. ACIAR Proceedings 84: 113–116.
Alpha T., Raharivelomanana P., Bianchini J.-P., Faure R., Cambon A., & Joncheray L. (1995) "alpha-Santaldiol & beta-santaldiol, two santalane sesquiterpenes from Santalum insulare." Phytochem. 41(3), 829-831.
Abstract. Two new sesquiterpene alcohols, beta-santaldiol and alpha-santaldiol, have been isolated from the heartwood of Santalum insulare var. marchionese and, by means of two-dimensional NMR experiments, shown to have the beta- and alpha-santalane skeleton respectively.
Azais, T. 1995. “Sandalwood management in the Southern Province of New Caledonia.” pp. 217–227. In: Gerum, L., J.E.D. Fox, and Y. Ehrhart (eds.). 1995. Sandalwood Seed, Nursery and Plantation Technology. Proceedings of a regional workshop for Pacific Island Countries, August 1–11, 1994, Noumea, New Caledonia. RAS/92/361. Field Document 8. UNDP/FAO South Pacific Forestry Development Programme, Suva, Fiji.
Brennan, P., and M. Merlin. (1993). "Biogeography and traditional use of Santalum in the Pacific Region". In: F. McKinnell (ed.). Proceedings of a symposium held on June 2, 1991 at the XVII Pacific Science Congress, Honolulu, Hawai‘i. ACIAR Proceedings 49. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia.
Butaud J-F, Raharivelomanana P, Bianchini J-P & Baron V. (2003) “A new chemotype of Sandalwood (Santalum insulare Bertero ex A DC.) from Marquesas Islands” J. Essen. Oil Res. 15, 323-6.
Channel S. & Thompson L. (1999) “Development of a Sandalwood Conservation Strategy for Vanuatu. In Forest Genetic Resources No 27., 68-72.
Chauvin J.-P. & Erhart J. “Germination of two provenances of Santalum austrocaledonicum var. austrocaledonicum.” ACIAR-Proceedings Series 84, 113-116.
Chauvin J.-P. (1990) “Production of sandalwood plants in New Caledonia” Bois-et-Forets-des-Tropiques 218, 33-41.
Ehrhart Y. (1998) “Descriptions of some sandal tree populations in the South West Pacific: consequences for silviculture of these species & provenances” ACIAR Proceedings Series (1998) 84, 105-112.
Fosberg F.R. & Sachet M.H. “Santalum in Eastern Polynesia” Candollea 40, 459-470.
Jiko L.R. (2000) “Status & Current Interest in Sandalwood in Fiji” Sandalwood Research Newsletter 10, 1-3.
McKinnell, F.H. (ed.). (1993). "Sandalwood in the Pacific Region". ACIAR Proceedings 49. ACIAR, Canberra, Australia.
Merlin, M.D., L.A.J. Thomson, and C.R. Elevitch (2005). Santalum ellipticum, S. freycinetianum, S. haleakalae, and S. paniculatum (Hawaiian sandalwood), ver. 3.1. In: C.R. Elevitch (ed.). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawai‘i. http://www.traditionaltree.org.
Cropwatch comments: Recommended article & excellent biblio!
Neil P.E. (1986) “Sandalwood in Vanuatu” Forest Research Report, Vanuatu Forest Service (5/86): ii + 7.
Raharivelomanana P., Bianchini J.-P., Faure R., Cambon A. & Azzaro M. (1994) Phytochem. 35,1059.
Raharivelomanana P., Faure R., Cambon A. & Azzaro M. (1993) Phytochem. 33,235.
Smith, R.M., and P.R. Morris (1979). Composition of Fijian sandalwood oil (Santalum yasi). International Flavour and Food Additives 10(2), 57.
Rock J.F. (1916) "The sandalwoods of Hawaii. A revision of the Hawaiian species of the genus Santalum." Hawaii Board Agric. Forest. Bot. Bull. 3, 1–43.
Skottsberg C. (1930). "Further notes on Pacific sandalwoods." Acta Horti Gothob. 5, 135–145.
Skottsberg C. (1930b). "The geographical distribution of the sandalwoods and its significance." Proc. 4th Pacific Sci. Congr., Java 3, 435–442.
Stemmermann, R.L. 1980. Observations of the Genus Santalum (Santalaceae) in Hawaii. Pacific Science 34(1), 41-54.
Thomson, L.A.J. (2005). Santalum austrocaledonicum and S. yasi (sandalwood), ver. 1.1. In: Elevitch, C.R. (ed.). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Hōlualoa, Hawai‘i. <http://www.traditionaltree.org
Cropwatch comments: Recommended article & excellent biblio!
Tuisese, S., P. Bulai, T. Evo, K. Singh, L. Jiko, T. Faka‘osi, S. Napa‘a, M. Havea, and L.A.J. Thomson (2000). A strategy for conserving, managing and better utilising the genetic resources of Santalum yasi (sandalwood) in the Kingdom on Tonga and Republic of Fiji. Department of Forestry, Fiji, Forestry and Conservation Division, Tonga and SPRIG, Canberra, Australia.
Verhaegen D. (2000) “AMI in the Marquesas Islands: Sandal Preservation.” L’Ami Ingrediénts Naturels No 26, 1-2.
Wilson, C. A. (1985). "Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; proposed endangered status for Santalum freycinetianum Gaud. var. lanaiense Rock (Lanai sandalwood or`iliahi). Fed. Reg. 50, 9086–9089.
Yadav V.G. (1993) "Sandalwood: its origin, synthetic substitutes & structure-odour relationship." PAFAI Journal 15(4), 21-54.
Anon (2004). “Police hunt for Thai sandalwood collectors” New Straits Times, Johor Baru. 28.6.2004
McWilliam A (2001) “Haumeni, not many: renewed plunder and mismanagement in the Timorese Sandalwood Industry” Resource Management in Asia Pacific Working Paper No 29 pub. Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Program, Division of Pacific and Asian History, Research School for Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra 2001.
Ormeling F.J. (1955) "The Timor problem. A geographical interpretation of an undeveloped island." PhD thesis, University of Indonesia. J.B. Walters, Djakarta & Groningen (through Rohadi et al. (undated).
Rohadi D., Maryani R., Widyana M. & Azhar I. (undated) "Ch 12. A case study of the production-to-consumption system of sandalwood (Santalum album) in South Central Timor, Indonesia. See http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/NTFPAsia/Chapter12-Chapter16.PDF.
Cropwatch comments: Recommended study of the Timorese sandalwood situation.
Rohadi D., MAryani R., Belcher B., Perez M., & Widnyana M. (2000). "Can sandalwood in East Nusa Tenggara survive? Lessons from the policy impact on resource sustainability." Sandalwood Research Newsletter Issue 10.
Susila I.W.W. (1Ormeling, F.J. (1955) The Timor Problem. J.B. Walters, Djakarta, Gröningen. 994). "Estimate of hardwood yield & natural regeneration of sandalwood (Santalum album) in Amanuban Seletan, Timor Tengah Seltan. Santalum 15
Denham R (1998) “Southern Sandalwood: an introduction” http://agspsrv38.agric.wa.gov.au/pls/portal30/docs/folder/ikmp/lwe/vegt/trees/f02798.pdf.
McKinnell F.H. (1990) “Status of Management & Silviculture research on Sandalwood in W Australia and Indonesia” in Proc of the symposium on sandalwood in the Pacific : April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, Hawai/technical co-ordinators: Lawrence Hamilton, C. Eugene Conrad. Pub: Symposium on Sandalwood Conservation (1st: 1991: Honolulu, Hawaii).
Nagaraja Rao (1939) J Ind Chem Soc Ind Division (1939) 2, 1.
Widiarti, A. (1991). “Site and heartwood formation of sandalwood.” Buletin Penelitian Hutan (534), 1-14.
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