The Cropwatch Series

Cropwatch 7

                                     

Threatened & Vulnerable Aromatic Species:

A List of Essential Oils Recommended

 by Cropwatch Not to Be Used in Cosmetics/Perfumery.

Copyright © Tony Burfield Oct 2004 & Jan/Feb 2005.

 

 

 

Preamble.

Commodities from aromatic species that are ecologically at-risk are used in the aroma industry (: perfumery/cosmetics, flavourings, aromatherapy and incense products). Burfield (2003) has previously tentatively identified these items for the perfume industry and Burfield & Wildwood (2004) have identified them for the aromatherapy profession. In this tabular & more detailed format, this list of aromatic commodities used in perfumes & cosmetics from threatened and at-risk species, first drawn up by the author in October 2004, does not reflect disruption in the supply of aromatic raw materials caused by extremes of weather in Florida and the Caribbean during 2004, or yet by the Tsunami disaster, the result of the fourth largest earthquake this century which took place off the coast of N. Sumatra in the Indian Ocean region on 26th December 2004. This event regrettably took a terrible toll on human life and has caused immense disruption & suffering. The disaster outfalls have also subsequently affected the supply and/or price of a range of raw materials such as Patchouli, Nutmeg, Cananga & Cinnamon oils, amongst others (Patchouli plants Pogostemon cablin being grown in several affected islands such as Melaboh and Loksuemawe in Aceh, and Nias Island).

At the time of writing (Jan 2005) oil traders report that Sandalwood oil Indonesian & East Indian is pretty well unobtainable - even previously available small parcels of oil (sometimes adulterated with polyethylene glycol 600, or East Indian and/or Australian Sandalwood oil), which sold for the unprecedented price of $1,000/Kg. Small lots of Sandalwood oil from Sri Lanka, Vanuatu & other Pacific Islands, New Caledonia & even China, have  become increasingly rare. Rosewood oil supplies are described by oil traders (Dec 2004) as ‘critical’. The ability of the relevant authorities in these producing areas to control smuggling of Sandalwood and other threatened species is therefore expected by Cropwatch to be increasingly tested (see smuggling section below). The planting of tracking chips by the US Forestry Service into ginseng plants (Fallik 2003), and by the State of Kerala’s Forestry Dept. into Sandalwood trees, may present a useful technological advance in defeating the wholesale smuggling of plants [American Ginseng: Panex quinquefolium is a critically threatened medicinal plant according to Plant Savers (Zarella 2004); the number of Sandalwood trees in Kerala's Marayur Forest has dropped from 62,000 to 55,000].

References:

Burfield T. (2003) “Unethical Use of Rare & Threatened Plants and Animal

Products in the Aroma Industry.” Endangered Species Update May/June 2003 Vol 20(3), 97-106.

 

Burfield T. & Wildwood C. (2005) “Cropwatch 5” www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~nodice/ new/magazine/cropwatch5/cropwatch5.htm  

 

Fallik D. (2003) “Botanical Industry learns to replenish resources used in products” The Philadelphia Inquirer/Tribune Business News 27.10.2003.

 

Microchip Protection For Sandalwood - 26/11/2004 see:  http://www.nzforestry.co.nz/nzf_archive.asp?viewarchive=yes&articleid=2275

 

Zarella C. (2004) “Watching the Wildcrafters” E Magazine 01.03.2004.

 

The Myths around the “Sustainable Production” of Essential Oils.

The ideal of solving ecological sustainability issues for commodities “through the eye of the market” has become a popular concept. Making indigenous forest peoples the custodians of biodiversity; rewarding them appropriately via Fair Trade schemes; promoting initiatives between NGO’s and farmers to grow ‘at-risk’ species commercially are commonly (and perhaps over- simplistically) reeled off by oil sellers as a panacea to the situation. Further, the mention of obscure geographic origins for sourcing these “sustainably produced” aromatic commodities further tends to confuse the true picture. The reality of continuing to trade in at-risk species is, however, much more complex than traders would often have customers believe, and Margolis, in an article that seems to me almost to have a touch of black humour about it, provides some examples of misguided commercial enterprise in promoting commodities from Amazonian Forest Schemes (Margolis 2004). The subject is touched on further under the “Some Misunderstood Terms” and “Quotes” section below.

Reference

Margolis M. (2004) “Jungle Economics; Environmentalists thought they could save the Rain Forest and make money at the same time. They were wrong.” Newsweek Internat. 16.02.2004.

A List of Essential Oils Recommended by Cropwatch Not to Be Used in Perfumery

KEY

 

Species which are commonly used as incense ingredients, are coloured green

Rosewood species are coloured pink

Sandalwood species from different origins are coloured yellow

Please note: The  lists in this article are not exhaustive, and do not generally include low risk/near threatened species such as Cupressus sempervirens (Cedarleaf oil) and Callitris columellaris (Australian Cypress pine oil).

Table 1 Agarwood Oils

All Aquilaria, Gonystylus & Gyrinops spp. added to Appendix II of CITES 2004

Name of commodity

Botanical name

Geographic origin

Status of plant

Agarwood oil, resinoids, CO2 extracts, attars etc.

syn. Oud, Eaglewood oil, Agaru.

Also called Xylaloes,  Columnback wood oil, Calmnac Wood oil, Aloes Wood Oil, Lignum Rhodium and Agar-attar

Oil distilled from old diseased trees bearing fragrant resin used in high-class perfumery. Attars used in India & Middle East.

Major sources of wood are A. crassna, A. malaccensis & A. sinensis; however botanical origins are rarely distinguished in the agarwood trade.

Aquilaria spp. 

[Gonystylus, Gyrinops and Phaleria spp. are used to produce (sometimes inferior?) grades of agaru or gaharu – resin containing fragrant wood]  

Indo-Malaysia.
 

Specifically India1,  Bhutan, Borneo Burma, Laos, Malaysia, Indonesia2,  Philippines, Vietnam. Some species to Japan & China.  

A. apiculata Merr. Philippines.
                   
 

A. brachyantha (Merr.) Hall f. Luzon.
                      
    
 

A. beccariana Van Tieghem. Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo. Vulnerable: IUCN    (2002).                  
 

A. citrinaecarpa (Elmer) Hall f.
                            
                   
A. cumingiana (Decne) Ridley Philippines, Borneo, Moluccas
Vulnerable:
IUCN
(2002).    
 

A. filaria (Oken) Merill. Also Philipines, Sumatra, New Guinea.
                    
 

A. hirta Ridley Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra Vulnerable: IUCN        (2002).               
 

A. malaccensis
Listed under CITES (1995) Appendix II. Vulnerable: IUCN
(2002). Facing genetic erosion: CIMAP (1997) Extraction of spp. banned/regulated in India according to state3.          See notes below for distribution                                       
A. microcarpa Baill. Malaya, Sumatra,
Borneo.
Vulnerable: IUCN
  (2002).                                               
A. parvifolia Quis Philippines.

                 
A. rostrata
Ridley
Malay peninsula.
Rare: Cropwatch (2005) 
    
A. urdanetensis (Elmer) Hall f.

Mamalis oil

Aquilaria pendantra syn. Pittosporum brachysepalum Turcz.

Philippines

Aquilaria pendantra Blanco. 
 

Cont’d

Aquilaria spp.

China

A. grandifolia Bth

 

A. sinensis Sprengel. 
 

A. yunnanensis

SC Huang.

Cont’d

Aquilaria spp.

Thailand

A. rostrata
Rare
: (Cropwatch 2005)

Cont’d

Aquilaria spp.

Vietnam & Cambodia

A. baillonii Pierre ex Lamk. 
                   
 

A. banaensis Pham Hoang Ho – (Vietnam only).
           
 

A. crassna        
Pierre ex H. Lecomte
Critically endangered: IUCN. CITES: listed in Appendix II (1994). Vietnam Govt. banned trade and extraction of A. crassna in 1987. Harvesting of agarwood banned in Cambodia.

Gonystylus spp.

Gonystylus bancanus (Miq.) Kurtz.

Pelambang, Java

 

Gonystylus spp.

Gonystylus macrophyllus

Java

Vulnerable: WCM

Gyrinops spp. Gryrinops versteegi (Gilg). Domke & other ssp. West New Guinea etc Proposed for Inclusion in Appendix II of CITES 2004

Agarwood qualities are placed in the above section because these products are commonly sold as incense products & as essential oil which is used as an ingredient of fine fragrances (e.g. M7 by Yves San Laurent). As well as Aquilaria species, Gonystylus, Gyrinops and Phaleria spp. also produce gaharu. The genus Gonystylus comprises 31 species, being chiefly distributed across the Malesion tropical rainforest region, extending to Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Fiji (Tawan 1999); lower quality gaharu eminating from Gonystylus spp. being mentioned by Wollenberg (2001). Yamada (1995) estimated that 2000 tons/year of agarwood pass through the principal agarwood trading centre, Singapore, 70% coming from Indonesia and 30% from other S.E. Asian countries. Of this, 70% is exported to Arab countries and 30% to China, Hong Kong & Taiwan. Japanese merchants go on to trade in agarwood largely via Honk Kong. Steam distilled & CO2 extracted plantation-grown artificially infected agarwood products etc. are / will be available on the oils market, but have yet to gain widespread acceptance (agarwood plantations started seven years previously in Vietnam, also in Laos, Papua New Guinea & other parts of S.E. Asia with the Tropical Rainforest Project Foundation (TRP) – a Dutch NGO funded by EC grants using new technologies to trigger & accelerate resin formation - see www.agarwood.org.vn). It is understood that TRP have taken out a worldwide patent on a resin induction process, and distillation of the “worlds first certified sustainable agarwood oil” is likely to take place in 2005, as claimed by Phillips (2005).

Chakrabarty et al. (1994) had earlier described the agarwood trade in India, pinpointing some 200 distilleries in Hojai, Nilbagan and Islamnagar in the Naogoan district of Assam, and describing the distillation process in detail. The authors describe difficulties in establishing the legal licensed basis (if any) for many of the distilleries in the above locations, and similarly for the agarwood extraction businesses in Manipur, and also the  problems in estimating the extent of illegally acquired agarwood from India and Bhutan - in addition to that smuggled via Myanmur. The main destination for agarwood, chips and dust appeared to be the United Arab Emirates (especially Dubei), Saudi Arabia, UK and Bahrain.

Harris T. (undated), a US-based businesswoman selling aromatic raw materials including Aquilaria qualities, reflects on knowledge of the agarwood situation in Laos, gained via a personal 3-week visit (see http://www.enfleurage.com/ac-agarwood-2.html). Harris argues against a total ban on agarwood oil trading which she maintains is not necessary; the argument seems to be somewhat tenuously reasoned on the hedonistic pleasure that the products give at this present moment in time, although elsewhere in the article Harris refers to very large numbers of plantation trees which exist in Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, thereby implying a continued harvest (presumably of A. crassna at least). This was not the conclusion of the Trade & Legislation workshop group at First International Agarwood Conference, Viet Nam, November 2003, which concluded “plantations are not the stand-alone answer to long-term supply of the global Agarwood trade.”

A second argument against maintaining the unfettered free trading in this valuable commodity, as even TRP have conceded on their website, is the fact that the establishment of agarwood plantations will not necessarily reduce the demand for agarwood – they may well increase it. Meanwhile it is generally agreed that the natural occurrence of Aquilaria spp. in the wild across India, Indonesia etc. generally continues to decline, in spite of the establishment of plantations in various widely-spread locations. A scenario where the survival prospects for Aquilaria species are ultimately dependent on privately owned plantations is not a prospect that every ecologically-minded person would relish, and the essential oil trade itself has many disaster stories connected with failed commercial plantations, across a number of oil-bearing species. It is also apparent that although Harris is preoccupied with the survival of Aquilaria species per se, perhaps in order to continue to be able to market valuable commodities from the genus, the negative effects for biodiversity of slash and burn, creeping agricultural production in forest areas plus agarwood monoculture in these areas, are not clearly spelled out in her article. Thus, whilst arguments surrounding issues solely concerning Aquilaria species sustainability might be put forward, true ecological forest sustainability with its existing biodiversity (i.e. holistic forest management) probably cannot. So, my conclusion is that the somewhat profane use of agarwood oil in high-class perfumery – which is the principal issue with which we are concerned here - seems to serve no good purpose, apart from any attached merchandising gain from its advertised mention as a novelty ingredient, and could be positively harmful to the ecological status of Aquilaria spp. by adding to the demand for the commodity.

Harris in her article further describes a highly energy-intensive preparative distillation process for agarwood oil, which is said to occur over 7 days (in contrast to the 30-36 hour Assam process as described by Chakrabarty et al. 1994), but fails to mention any relevant carbon neutral issues. Harris also argues to the effect that botanical classification of agarwood species is not currently practical at the point of trade, since (if I understand this correctly), Harris maintains that traded items like oil and chipped wood are impossible to back-classify. This may be a perfectly valid position in countries with an absence, or a refusal to implement, batch-tracking practices. On the face of it, it would not easily be solved in a perfect world even by employing the appropriate advanced analytical botanical & chemical education & training either. However The Plant Bulletin of the Agri-Food & Vetinary Authority of Singapore (Jan. 2004) describes the documentation procedures for the export, import and re-export of agarwood species which were not classified in Appendix II of CITES at the time (such as block, chips powder or oil of Aquilaria filaria), suggesting that this might not be such a universal problem as Harris suggests.  One can’t help feeling that this type of argument cited above reflects a tendency amongst agarwood ‘cultists’ to resist all methods of scientific investigation & classification - these would be useful tools to demystify areas such as agarwood quality assessment procedures, which are connected to ethnically - & culturally - based rituals.

Finally the article also rails against alleged shortcomings in the evidence leading to IUCN and CITES classifications for Aquilaria spp. – again familiar arguments used in incense-product trading circles to justify continued agarwood trading. Nevertheless it has to be remembered that the Republic of Indonesia itself (which claims to be the largest agarwood producer) was the proposer for the inclusion of all agarwood producing species of Aquilaria & Gryrinops which were currently not in the Appendices of CITES, at the Thirteenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties on 3-14 October 2004 in Bangkok, Thailand. Further Harris’s arguments, from the somewhat rosy-tinted perspective of an agarwood commodity seller, presents a gently indulgent and sanitised picture of agarwood trading – with no mention of gangland, smuggling/illegal trading or any ugly exploitation of indigenous gatherers by exogenous collectors, which is widely reported elsewhere – for example in Central and East Kalimantan, Sumatra, Papua New Guinea etc. Further, as Momberg et al. (2000) infer, threats from outsiders can affect traditional ways of more sustainable gaharu gathering turning them towards more intense & destructive practices.

In spite of these deep misgivings, I recommend readers make their own minds up by reading the article by Trygve Harris at the above mentioned URL, which I feel makes an important contribution to understanding the attitudes and knowledge surrounding agarwood commodity trading. 

 

references:

Chakrabarty K., Kumar A. & Menon V (1994) Trade in Agarwood WWF-India/TRAFFIC India, New Delhi

Momberg F. et al. “Exploitation of Gaharu, and Forest Conservation Efforts in the Kayan Mentarang National Park, East Kalimantan, Indonesia” in People, Plants & Justice – The Politics of Nature Conservation ed. Charles Zerner Columbia University Press, NY 2000.

Phillips D. (2005) – business advisor to TRP – private communication Jan. 2005.

Tawan C.S. (1999) "A new species of Gonystylus (Thymeaceae) from Sarawak, Borneo" Botanical J. Linnean Soc. 130, 65-68.

Wollenberg EK (2001) "Incentives for collecting gaharu in East Kaliantan" Economic Botany 55, 444-456.

 

Yamada, I (1995) "Aloeswood Forest & the Maritime World" Southeast Asian Studies 33(3), 181-187. 

 

Notes (data complied from various sources Including):

 

Burkhill IH (1966) A dictionary of economic products of the Malay Peninsula Vol: 2 Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

 

Hou D. (1960) "Aquilaria" Flora Malesiana Series 1: 6(1-3) Thymelaceae,  pp6-15  ed. CGCJ van Steenis & Oyen, L.P.A

 

Hilton-Taylor, C. (2002) IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2002). IUCN Switzerland

 

Nguyen, X.D. (1999). Plant Resources of Southeast-East Asia No. 19. Essential-oil plants. PROSEA, Bogor, Indonesia

 

Whitmore TC ed. (1973) Tree Flora of Malaysia Longman Group, London

 

Aquilaria beccariana van Tieghem is:
syn. Aquilaria cumingiana (Decne) Ridley var. parviflora Airy Shaw
syn. Acquilaria grandifolia Domke
syn. Gyrinopsis grandifolia Quis (– also found in Borneo, Malaysia, Sumatra).

 

Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex H. Lecomte is:
syn Aquilaria agallocha auct., non-Roxb (1832)
(Cambodia, S. Vietnam and Thailand; becoming very rare).

 

Aquilaria hirta Ridley
syn. Aquilaria moszkowskii Gilg. (– found in parts of Malaysia, Singapore, E. part of Sumatra)

 

Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk (1783) is:
syn. Aquilaria agollacha Roxb. (1832)
syn. Agallochum malaccense (Lamk) Kuntze (1891)
syn Aquilariella malaccensis (Lamk) v. Tieghem (1893).

A. malaccensis reportedly found in India (especially NE India), Burma, parts of Malaysia, Sumatra Bangka, Borneo, the Phillipines, Japan, Thailand, some parts of Cambodia and Vietnam, and other parts of the very Far East. A. agallocha found in the forests of S.E. Asia including within India: Assam (Nowgong-cachar), Nagaland (Naga), Meghalaya (Khasi, Karo Hills), Bangladesh, W. Bengal (Darjeeling), the hills of Manipur and Tripur, and elsewhere: Bhutan, Burma, Myanmar, Western China, Japan, Vietnam, Sumatra, Phillipines (Luzon), Cambodia, Borneo & Iran. Some regard A. agollocha is a truly distinct species – see TRAFFIC REPORT by Broad S (1995) “Agarwood Harvesting in Vietnam.” TRAFFIC Bulletin- Wildlife Trade Monitoring Unit 1995 15(2), 96 Traffic International.

Aquilaria microcarpa Baillon - occurs in some parts of Malaysia, Sumatra, Belitung, Bangka and Borneo.

 

Aquilaria sinensis Sprengel is syn. A. grandiflora Benth. : Southern China

 

Table 2 Sandalwood Oils

Name of commodity

Botanical name

Geographic origin

Status of plant

Santalum acuminatum

“Sweet Quandong” (not used for oil production)

Santalum acuminatum

(R. Br.) A. DC

Temperate & W. Australia

Protected:

in S. Australia (but law not respected:

Holiday (1989)15

 

Sandalwood Oil East African

Osyris lanceolata
Hochst. & Steud
.

[Name also applied to oil of Osyris tenuifolia Engl.]

Tanzania16

Threatened:

Cropwatch 3 (2004)

Sandalwood Oil East Indian

Santalum album L.

India, Timor, some Indian Ocean Islands, Indonesia,

Philippines, Australia.

 

[Introduced into China, Sri Lanka & Taiwan]

 

- See Swaminathan18a

Vulnerable in Asia:

IUCN

Low risk/Near threatened in India
IUCN

Priority spp. for in situ conservation: FAO (1984)12

Oil Export controlled by Madras & Mysore Govts.

 

Spike disease greater threat than exploitation:

(Green 1995)19

Haleakala Sandalwood

Santalum haleakalae

Hbd.

Hawaii

Vulnerable:

IUCN

Only 600 trees now exist:         
Cropwatch (2004)

Sandalwood oils Hawaian

Santalum fernandezianum F. Philippi

 

Santalum ellipticum
Gaud.

Hawaii

Extinct:

IUCN

 

Insufficient data to establish status:

(Cropwatch 2003)                 

Santalum insulare

Santalum insulare

Bertero ex A. DC.

French Polynesia, Cook Islands, Pitcairn.

Insufficient data to establish status:

Cropwatch (2004)

Santalum lanceolatum oil “Plum bush”

Santalum lanceolatum

R. Br.
(Hewson & George 1984)

Australia: Queensland, NSW, Victoria, W. Australia

Endangered:

in Victoria & Queensland

a threatened taxon under Schedule 2 of the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act (1988)

Santalum murrayanum

 “Bitter Quandong”

Santalum murrayanum

(T.L. Mitchell) C.A. Gardner

Temperate & W. Australia

Protected: in S. Australia [but law not respected: Holiday (1989)15]. Little, if any, oil produced).

Sandalwood oil New Caledonia

Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. var. austrocaledonicum

New Caledonia

Depleted:

Cropwatch (2004)

Sandalwood Papua New Guinea

Santalum macgregorii Fv.Mueller

& S. papuanum Summerh.

Papua New Guinea

Endangered:

IUCN

Sandalwood Polynesia

Santalum freycinetianum
Gaud.

Polynesia

Insufficient data:

Cropwatch (2004)

Sandalwood “oil”
SW Australian

 [Usually solvent extracted – not an essential oil].

Santalum spicatum

(R. Br.) A. DC

Northern S. Australia & S.W. Australia

Protected in some reserves.
Non-sustainably harvested; plantations not yet productive; no impact
assessment
(CALM).

 

Smuggling in Queensland  reported.

 

Much reduced through exploitation: Mabberley21 (1998). [But used by some leading perfume houses].22

Sandalwood oil Tahiti

Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill

Tahiti

Insufficient data:

Cropwatch (2004)

Sandalwood Oil Vanuatu

Santalum austro-

caledonicum

Vieill.

Vanuatu23,24 (Pacific)

 

 

Threatened: FAO

Insufficient data: Cropwatch (2004)

Santalum yasi

Santalum yasi Seem.

Tonga, Fiji, Niue25

Depleted, sites often inaccessible:

Cropwatch (2004)

The Santalum genus is represented by some 25 semi-parasitic species, all possessing fragrant woods, occurring throughout SE Asia, Australia and the Pacific. Sandalwood oil East Indian has traditionally occupied an important place in perfumery because of its sensual, radiant and long-lasting woody odour, good fixative properties and its ability to combine with other aromatic raw materials such as rose, jasmin, patchouli, orris, bergamot & lavender etc. to give pleasing effects. There is now pressure on all sandalwood species resulting from the over-exploitation of Santalum album in India and Indonesia, and whilst global demand is in excess of 200 tons/annum, the market has struggled to supply 50 tons in 2004 (Cropwatch data).

 

Table 3

Aromatic commodities from other species

Name of commodity

Botanical name

Geographic origin

Status of plant

Amyris oil

 syn.

W.I.

Sandalwood; Candle Wood.

Amyris balsamifera L.

S.E. Haiti (formerly also Dominican Republic - occurs across Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico).

Vulnerable:

TB (2004); Joulain (1999).

 

Collected dead wood distilled in Haiti by Jacosa; volumes declining.

Ambergris

Physeter macrocephalus

Widespread

Sperm whale (but not products from-) listed under Appendix I of CITES (2003)

Anise Scented Myrtle Oil

Backhousia anisata

Vickery

(now renamed

Anetholia anisata)

Bellinger and Nambucca valleys of NE part of NSW, Australia.

Vulnerable:

due to commercial exploitation: TB (2004).

 

Buchu oils

Agathosma betulina (Bergius) Bartl. & Wendl.

& A. crenulata

(L.) Pillans

S. Africa

Vulnerable:

TB (2003)

Demise: poor gathering & increasing demand Hoegler (2000)4

Calamus oil, India

Acorus calamus L.

India

Becoming rare:

CIMAP (1997)

[Castoreum resinoid, absolute]

Castor fiber &

C. canadensis

Alaska, Russia, Canada, Siberia

Not threatened or endangered [but animal products considered unethical in perfumery use]

Cedarwood Oil Atlas

Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Manetti ex Carr

Morocco, Algeria,

[Introduced into France5a]

Threatened:

(TB 2003, 2005)5

Under investigation for possible Red List entry: UNEP-WCMC

Cedarwood oil, Kenyan;

(East African Pencil Cedar).

Juniperus procera

Hochst. ex Endl.

Mountains of Central

Kenya, Ethiopia.

Endangered: FAO (1986)6

Lower risk/near threatened:

IUCN; WCMC
Cedrela oil

 

Cedrela odorata

L.

Brazil

Scarce; wood export illegal; plantations failed from insect attack Maia et al. (2000)7

Listed in Appendix III CITES (2004)

Cinnamomum oils

Certain spp. of Cinnamomum genus.

China; India

Vulnerable:

Some Chinese oil-bearing spp: Zhu et al. (1994)8

Cinnamomum tamala: “Nearly threatened”: CIMAP (1997)

Civet resinoid, absolute etc.

Viverra civettina

 

Viverra zibetha

 

Viverricula indica

Civettictis

civetta

India

India Indonesia

China

E. & S. China

 

Botswana

 

        

All Listed under Appendix III of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (CITES 2003).

 

Listed under Appendix III (CITES 2004)

Costus oil, concr., abs.

Saussurea lappa

CB Clarke

Kashmir, Sikkim, SW China

Protected:

CITES (2003)

Appendix I

Elemi oil, resinoid.

Canarium lucozonium (Blume) A. Gray

Philippines

 

Vulnerable:

WCMC

Habitat loss, poor regeneration prospects:

Cropwatch (2004)9

Ginger-lily oil, abs.

Hedychium coronarium Koenig

India, Hawaii

Endangered:

in some areas: CIMAP (1977)

Ginger-lily oil, abs.

Hedychium spicatum Smith

India, Malaysia, Japan

Vulnerable: through over exploitation especially in Uttar Pradesh & Himachal Pradesh: CIMAP (1997)

Havozo bark oil

Ravensara anisata

Danguy et Choux (pseudonym for R. aromatica)

Madagascar

Vulnerable: TB (2004)

Threatened:

Rasoanaivo (1997)10

Hinoki Wood Oil

Chamaecyparis obtusa

(Siebold & Zucc.) Endl

Japan

Protected:

Japanese Govt. from 1982.

Lower risk/near threatened: IUCN

Inula racemosa oil

Inula racemosa Hook f.

Alpine W. Himalaya

Vulnerable: Red Data Book of Indian Plants (1988)

Under threat in Himal Pradesh: Chauhan (1988)11

Juniperus thruifera tar

(Incense juniper)

Juniperus thruifera L.

Moroccan Atlas & Rif; scattered in W. Med.

Only 20,000 ha of J. thruifera remain in Morocco:

Ciesla (2002)12

Jurinia (Dhoop) roots, rhizomes

Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss.

India, Nepal, Pakistan

Depletion in most areas: CIMAP (1977)

Kapur Kachari oil

Hedychium spicatum

Smith

India: Himalaya

Vulnerable:

in Uttar Pradesh & Himachal Pradesh: CIMAP (1997)

Melanje Cedarwood oil

Widdringtonia whytei

Rendle.

Tropical Africa.

Endangered:

Conifer Specialist Group (Farjon et al., 1998)13:

IUCN

Mountain tobacco oil, extracts

Arnica montana L.

Spain, Romania

Protected: Annex D of CoE Regulations (EC) No. 338/97 &

Annex V of the EU Habitats, Fauna and Flora Directive: (EUROPA 2003)

Musk

Moschus spp.

Widely distributed

Spp. from Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan are listed under Appendix I of CITES (2003); spp. from other destinations are listed under Appendix II

Orchid Oils

except Vanilla spp.

Various spp. of Orchidaceae

Widely distributed

Orchidaceae:

Protected CITES (2003)

& EC reguln. 338/97 (annex B)

Parmelia (Lichen) oil, absolutes, extract

Parmelia nepalensis

Tayl. Hook,

P. nilgherrensis Nyl.

& P. tinctorium Nyl.

Himalayan Nepal, India

Export of all three  plants banned: Nelapese Govt 1993. Does not apply to processed material.14

Rosewood Oil

aka Bois de Rose oil

Aniba rosaedora var. amazonica Ducke & other Aniba spp.

Brazil

Endangered:

IUCN

Threatened: IBAMA, Brazil (1992)

 

Aniba fragrans Ducke,

A. canelilla (HBK) Mez.,

A. parviflora Ducke etc. are also exploited for essential oil.

 

Rosewood Oil

Ocotea caudata (Nees) Mez. & other Ocotea oils

Brazil, French Guinea

Many Ocotea oils endangered: Cropwatch (2004)

Siam Wood Oil

Fokienia hodginsii (Dunn) A. Henry & H. Thomas

Africa

Lower risk/Near threatened:

IUCN

Spikenard oil aka Jatamansi oil

Nardostachys grandiflora DC;
some say aka

N. jatamansi DC

Nepal26, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh

Protected:

CITES (2000) Appendix II

Depleted: CIMAP (1997)

Plant extraction from wild banned in Uttar Pradesh.27 Oil & oleo-resin export figures under-reported to avoid tax28. Sustainable plant management scheme started 26,29

Wintergreen oil,

Indian.

Gaultheria fragrantissma Wall.

India

Considerable depletion in wild

esp. S. India CIMAP (1977)

Rosewood oils from S. American Aniba spp. have become widely identified as commodities from threatened species in recent years, but continue to be used by many fragrance houses; their use in fragrances has been the target of criticism [e.g. French opposition to the alleged use of Rosewood oil in Chanel 5 is reported by Osava (1998)]. Newer fragrance launches have continued to feature Brazilan Rosewood [e.g. 'Presence d'une Femme' by Mountblanc (2002); Trussadi Skin by Trussadi (2002); Lagerfield Jako by Lagerfield (1999) etc.]. Successful Brazilian companies such as O Boticario and Natura use traditional Brazilian products (such as rosewood oil) as part of their policy for developing their home-market cosmetic product ranges.

Other ‘rosewood oils’ - e.g. from Ocotea spp., especially Ocotea caudata - are sometimes also sold as Rosewood oil. Batches of plantation-grown Rosewood leaf oil commercial batches seen by the author (believed to be distilled from Aniba fragrans) have been of poor odour quality compared with the normal oil. The promotion and fund-raising for Rosewood plantations has been focussed especially at specialist groups such as aromatherapists groups. These schemes have not passed without comment: Wildwood (2004) discusses the Adopt-a-Tree Campaign in depth, and Burfield (2004) critically assesses a paper by May & Barata on Rosewood plantation sustainability issues. It also has also come to Cropwatch’s attention that certain Brazilian enterprises are currently offering Amazonian essential oils, resins and other natural products to the UK market, but are in fact including commodities from threatened species (e.g. from Cedrela spp.) or from commodities which are actually illegal to trade in the UK (e.g. from Jaborandi Pilocarpus jaborandi & P. microphyllus) - under The Medicines (Retail Sale or Supply of Herbal Remedies) Order 1977.

References::

Burfield T. (2004) Cropwatch 6: “Rosewood Sustainability:  Review of May P.H. & Barata  E.S. “Rosewood Exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon: Options for Sustainable Production” Economic Botany 58(2) pp257-265 (2004).” at http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~nodice/

 

Osava M. (1998) “Brazil trade: perfume makers accused of pirating Amazon resources” Inter Press Service English News Wire 19.08.1998  

 

Wildwood C. (2004) at http://www.chrissie-wildwood.com/SAVING-ROSEWOOD-THE-FOREST-AND-HER-PEOPLES-2

 

 

References to table 3:

CIMAP (1997): Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP 1997).  From Indian Medicinal Plants Facing Genetic Erosion CIMAP Lucknow 1977.

CITES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).  Official documents: Appendices I, II and III. "http://www.cites.org/eng/append/latest_appendices.shtml 

 

Cropwatch (2003): see www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~nodice/

 

Cropwatch (2004): unpublished information.

 

TB (2003): see www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~nodice/new/magazine/products/products.htm

 

IUCN listings: see www.redlist.org

 

See other information on threatened species in the aroma & herb

trades on: http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~nodice/ and http://chrissie-wildwood.com/  

 

Footnotes to tables.

 

Table 4

Species Sold into Perfumery which are Threatened from Animal Grazing (preventing flowering). Cessation of Trading (not recommended) would promote Hardship to Gatherers.

Name of commodity

Botanical

name

Geographic origin

Status of plant

Frankincense oil, gum-oleoresin, resinoid etc.

Boswellia carteri Birdw.

[some say syn. B. sacra]

Somalia, Oman, Yemen

Low risk/Near threatened:
(B. sacra) IUCN (1997)
Hardship information:
(UNEP-WCMC)

Feral grazing also threatens the status of other species e.g. Cedrus atlantica in Morocco (Burfield 2005)3 and Juniperus thruifera, also in Morocco12  (Burfield 2005)3 and Juniperus thruifera, also in Morocco12

 

 

Table 5

Essential Oil-Bearing Species sold into Perfumery Threatened/Vulnerable in Specific Locations.

Name of commodity

Botanical name

Geographic origin

Status of plant

Andiroba oil

(sold as fixed oil into cosmetics and aromatherapy)

Carapa guianensis

Aublet

East Amazonia

logging frontier

Diminishing accessibility in Capim region due to logging

Shanley & Rosa (2004)32

Artemisia vulgaris oil

Artemisia vulgaris L.

E. Europe.

Vulnerable:

(Cropwatch 2004)

Bursera glabrifolia oil, resin

Bursera glabrifolia (HBK) Engl.

Mexico

“Over-harvesting has pushed the species to the brink of local extinction several times” Peters et al. (2003)30

Cade oil

Juniperus oxycedrus L.
ssp. macrocarpa

S.W. Spain

Conserved:

Regional Ministry of the Environment of Andalusia31  

Copaiba balsam

Copaifera reticulata

Ducke

East Amazonia

logging frontier

Diminishing accessibility in Capim region due to logging

Shanley & Rosa (2004)32

Situation needs watching:

Cropwatch (2004). See also Plowden (2003)33

Pinus merkusii resin etc.

(Merkus Pine)

Pinus merkusii

Jungh et de Vriese

Indonesia

Vulnerable:

SSC Conifer Specialist Group: IUCN

Thyme oil Spain

T. zygis Loefl. ex L. subsp. gracilis Boiss
R. Morales

Spain

Threatened: no monitoring by  authorities (Lange 1998)34

White sage oil

Salvia apiana Jepson

S. California USA

Threatened:

(Cropwatch 2004)

Listed as “To Watch”

United Plant Savers

The Ethical Consumer Association are asking consumers to boycott oils and herbs from endangered, threatened and at-risk species (and products containing extracts from such sources). See http://www.ethicalconsumer.org/boycotts/boycottnews.htm

 

 Essential Oil

Distillation Time

Oil Yield

Attars (gulab from Rosa spp., gulhina from henna flower (Lawsonia inermis), khus from N. Indian Vetiver etc.)

Up to 15 days to saturate Sandalwood oil (where used) or mineral oil base

NA

Ginger root                                    Zingiber officinale Sri Lanka

 

To 20 hrs when using 1:15 parts ground root powder to water

2% average

Indian Linaloe (Bursera spp.)

20 to 25 hours from dried husks

10 to 14%

 Sandalwood oils (Santalum album, S. austrocaledonicum)

Up to 3 days for crude oil under 3Kg/cm2 steam pressure, then 2 days redistillation at 3Kg/cm2, then 2 days rectification.

4.0 to 6.5% normally quoted, up to 12% from powdered roots.

Vetiver Oil (old process, Java)

36 to 48 hrs

Variable: at 0.07 Kg/l packing density: to 2%.

Vetiver Oil (S. India)

72 to 96 hours

1%

Yang ylang III Cananga odorata ssp. genuina

Up to 48 hrs in old style stills.

1.3% to 1.7% for this grade

 

The slow, energy intensive process of distillation under reduced pressure is also employed to prepare essential oils (e.g. Sandalwood oil E.I. from Santalum album and Costus oil from Costus resinoid, Saussurea lappa etc). 

References:

 

Brown P. (2004) The Guardian Mon 11th Oct 2004.

 

Golding J. (2002): Southern Africa Plant Red Data Lists ed. Janice Golding S.

  African Botanical Diversity Network Report N 14 2002 p104.

 

Hall P. & Bawa K.S. (1993) “Methods to assess the impact of extraction of

  non-timber forest products on plant populations.” Econ Bot 47, 234-247.

 

Higman S. et al. (1999) The Sustainable Forestry Handbook

  Publicns

 

Kobus A. (2004) – private communication.

 

Kull C. A. (2002) Journal of Cultural Geography 22.03.2002.

 

Wickens GE (2000) Ecophysiology of Economic Plants in Arid & Semi-Arid

  Lands Sringer Verlag NY.

 

Wildwood C. (2004) http://www.chrissie-wildwood.com/

Smuggling / Corruption and Threatened Species: some Press Reports

Australia: 1. AAP General News (Australia) 18.11.2002 “Queesland: Five fined for sandalwood harvesting”. According to the EPA, The Cairns Magistrate Court in Brisbane fined five individuals $300 each plus costs in the Cairns Magistrate Court today for the illegal harvesting and sale of sandalwood. No conviction was recorded.
2.
AAP General News (Australia) 12.05.2000. “Queensland: Sandalwood claims would be dealt with if true”. Speaking in Perth, WA Premier Richard Court said that allegations of corruption – WA Government officials exporting Sandalwood to Taiwan dealers who had offered bribes or prostitutes - would be dealt with if the complaints could be verified., but that he could fine on evidence that officials took bribes, and the allegations related to a time before his government came to power.

 

Brazil: 1. “Brazil's unsustainable Amazon scheme” at http://www.bbc.co.uk/BBCNEWS/Americas  describes Sudam, the Brazilian Government’s disbanded Amazon Development Agency which was supposedly funding an environmentally sustainable projects across the Amazon with a budget of $0.5 bn a year. Much of this, prosecutors allege, was stolen. The farm was granted more than $3 million dollars, but prosecutors investigating where the money has disappeared to say hardly any coffee was planted and much of the money disappeared.

Thailand: 1. New Straits Times 6/28/2004 “Police hunt for Thai sandalwood collectors”.  Police hunt for 50 armed Thai sandalwood collectors, some armed with guns, in the Endau Rompin national park and nearby areas.

 India: 1. Jain, Pushp K. (1995) “Perspective: Nation's Rich Wildlife Is Endangered ” India Abroad  12.05.1995. Jain (1995) outlines the reasons why local people are antagonistic towards forestry officials, and describes inadequately equipped forestry staff who are paid on a daily basis. He lists a number of species under pressure: Sandalwood which has disappeared from S. India’s forests, teak in Bandipur in Karnata, rosewood and cinnamon in Periyar in Kerala, agarwood from NE India, and Himalayan Yew.

2. “India's Most Wanted Criminal Veerappan shot Dead” Pakistan Times Foreign Desk Report  http://pakistantimes.net/2004/10/20/top3.htm describes the police shooting of a bandit allegedly responsible, amongst other crimes, for the illegal felling and sale of thousands of sandalwood trees.

Indonesia: 1. Jakarta Post 30.09.2003 “Police seize 13.6 tons of Sandalwood”. T the East Nusa Tenggara Police (Kupang) seized at least 13.6 tons Kg of sandalwood allegedly smuggled from East Timor on the way to the sandalwood-distilling firm PT Tropicana Oil.
2. Jakarta Post 22.01.1999 “240,000 tons illegal logs, wood seized” Data at the Ministry of Forestry and Plantations indicated that 240,000 tons of illegally felled and transported tree included 10.14 tons of sandalwood.

 v ;

 

 

 

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Notes on Some Misused Ecological Terms: Some Provocative Counter-Information!

Much of the information available to essential oil users originates from the oil traders themselves (e.g. the monthly Newsletter from Essentially Oils Ltd., Chipping Norton, Ox., UK; or the Monthly Trading Reports from George Uhe Co,. Inc. at http://www.uhe.com/mktreportmain.htm). Some oil traders (perhaps unwittingly) may have mislead their customers by mis- or re-interpreting common ecological terms such as “sustainable production”, the effects of which (intentionally or non-intentionally) invariably suit their own commercial ends. Here is the briefest re-look at some of these concepts: 

Sustainability: The capability of natural systems to maintain themselves whilst being used (i.e. equals holistic resource management).

Sustainable harvest: (according to Hall & Bawa 1993): “the level of harvest that does not impair the ability of the harvest population to replace itself.” This is the commonest misconception put about by oil traders: the definition does not take any account of ecological impact of harvesting. For example Rooibos tea from Aspalanthus linearis is widely said to be “sustainably harvested” in S. Africa [e.g. quoted by Wickens (2000)]. However the species Agathosma cephalodes E. May. ex Sond., formerly endemic in the Western Cape, is reportedly affected by the Rooibos tea industry, and may already by extinct according to Golding (2002).

 “The management of a forest for a single product will affect the forest’s ability to provide other services or products, so trade-offs have to be made” Higman et al. (1999) The Sustainable Forestry Handbook Earthscan Publicns.

Sustainable Yield Forestry: “…basically describes a myth. There are next to no examples of industrial sustainable tropical timber operations in the world, even when using a limited economic definition of yield – i.e., maintaining the volumes of timber available in successive harvests” (WRM, 1990).

A study commissioned by the International Tropical Timber Association (ITTO), found that “the amount of sustainable tropical timber harvesting is, on a world scale, negligible”.

The above two references would appear to challenge the possibility of sustainable production of essential oils from plant species with very long maturity times e.g. Sandalwood East Indian Santalum album (80 years) or Cedarwood Atlas Cedrus atlantica (120 years).

Deforestation: 21 acres of forest are cleared per minute (= 30,200 acres per day) across the globe. Logging machines like the 39-ton Timberking (a cutting machine: TB) can clear-cut 1 hectare of forest per day ref: Ecologist June 2003 p16. Countries like Madagascar have lost 95% of their forest cover compared with the situation 100 years previously. Every year, fires consume up to half of Malagasy's vast grasslands and thousands of square kilometres of its rainforests and secondary brush (slash and burn agriculture): Kull (2002). Essential oil crops have been monocultured on land that was previously virgin forest in Madagascar (Cropwatch: unpublished data).

Commercial plantations producing aromatic commodities such as agharu do not halt the rate of disappearance of agharu-bearing trees from those areas in which they occur. Selective extractive of trees (e.g. Aniba spp. for rosewood oil production) is often regarded as over-expensive & impractical by logging companies, compared with clear cutting.

NGO’s themselves have not escaped criticism. For example the ITTO has been accused of vested interest and national government bias (Higman et al. 1999).

Organic Status Aromatic Materials. Commercial organisations, such as EcoCert and the Soil Association, with little experience of the essential oil trade, employ inspection & batch tracking systems (but no actual chemical analysis of commodities for pesticides etc.) to certify aromatic materials for their organic status. Many incongruities arise from this situation:

1. It is difficult to understand how some steam distilled essential oils can be certified as “organic” when produced by diesel fuel as energy source, which has sometimes been hauled thousands of kilometres in order to produce them (Kobus, 2004).

2. It is also difficult to understand how threatened species illegally gathered from the wild can be certified as organic [see Wildwood (2004)].

3. Solvent extracted absolutes and concretes are not certified as organic by certain organisations, on the basis that they may contain miniscule amounts of solvent residues. Since they have been used in perfumery for up to 140 years, toxicological testing data exists for many of these materials. CO2 extracts of many (floral) absolutes and concretes, generally of unknown toxicity, are allowed to be classified by certain certifying organisations as “organic”.

4. Since open records of the activities of these organisations are not available for public inspection, and no-one has solved the “who inspects the inspectors” conundrum, the operation remains a little more than a marketing exercise, in Cropwatch’s opinion.

Plantations. Plantations are included in #2 Destructive Projects: (a list which also points the finger at dams, ranching, mining & industrial projects, commercial logging, the Tropical Forests Action Plan and the UN Biodiversity program). See The World Rainforest Movement’s Emergency Call to Action for the Forests and Their Peoples (petition with 3 million signatures delivered to the UN in 1989). The adverse effects of monoculture and effects of fertiliser chemicals, pesticides etc. on the eco-system need no further introduction; mixed species accession schemes for non-timber products on cleared land is too often not considered as an option.  

Rising CO2 levels – Global Warming. Unexpectedly large rises in CO2 levels for the last two years (2.08 and 2.54 ppm respectively) were recorded at Mauna Loa Observatory, which is 12,000ft up on a mountain in Hawaii (Brown 2004), fuelling increasing worries that time is short to curb global carbon emissions to prevent runaway global warming. CO2 is generated during the production of aromatic materials – for example by burning fuel to raise steam for the steam distillation of aromatic materials, and by the agricultural production techniques used to raise aromatic plants (e.g. by disturbing the forest floor). Many essential oil producing countries are not signatories to the Kyoto protocol (e.g. Australia, USA), and the essential oils trade has not taken on board the concept of carbon neutral methods of aromatic raw material production, although the opportunity for solar distillation exists in many tropical & even those more temperate countries. Solar distillation would, in addition to eliminating CO2 from the processing operation, conserve wood fuels in areas where wood is scarce and needed for food preparation. Further, several aromatic products employ excessively long distillation times (and therefore high potential fuel costs per kilo) for their production:

 


 

Albert Schweitzer (1948): “The truly ethical man tears no leaf from a tree, plucks no flower and takes care to crush no insect.”

 

Low (2004) “Many problems in managing and protecting endangered species arise not from our ignorance of the species’ ecology, but from human conflicts of interest”

ref: Low, Bobbi S. (2004) Endangered Species Jan – Mar 2004 21(1) p14.

 

Rainforest Centre Educational Supplement (undated): The absence of any evidence that sustainable tropical timber extraction can be achieved is ignored by government who promote sustainable yield as a solution, without definition or examples.  Many factors stand in the way of true sustainability, including corruption, commercial pressures and methods of extraction which require heavy machinery which compact the soil.”

 

Rodman (1977): “I need only to stand in the middle of a clear cut forest, a strip mined hillside, a defoliated jungle, or a damned canyon to feel uneasy about assumptions that could yield the conclusion that no human action can make any difference to the welfare of anything but sentient animals. “

Glossary.

ITTO: International Timber Trade Organisation http://www.itto.or.jp

IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources

Fair Trade Principles: Fair wages; Co-operative Workplaces; Consumer

education; Environmental Sustainability; Financial & Technical Support;

Respect for Cultural Identity; Public Accountability. See:

http://www.fairtradefederation.com/

UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme http://www.unep.ch

WCMC: World Conservation Monitoring Centre

http://www.wcmc.org.uk/aboutWDMC/-partners.html

WWF: Worldwide Fund for Nature http://www.panda.org

Disclaimer:

The above information is believed to be correct and was largely compiled from reliable published sources, but Cropwatch cannot be held legally responsible for any inaccuracies.

Copyright © Tony Burfield Oct 2004 & Jan/Feb 2005