The Cropwatch Series

Cropwatch 12

 

Opinion: Cropwatch Critiques the EU Inventory of

Ingredients in Cosmetic Products: II. Perfume & Aromatic Materials.

 

 

Copyright Ó Cropwatch Sept 2005.

 

 

 

Pre-amble

The SCCP produced an Opinion (SCCNFP/0389/00 Final, adopted Oct. 2000) that the 1st Update of the Inventory of Ingredients employed in Cosmetic Products Section II: Perfume and Aromatic Materials “had usefully improved the Inventory”. Unfortunately nobody else much agrees.

 

The need for such an inventory dates back to Article 5a of the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC, which stipulates that “the Commission shall compile an inventory of ingredients employed in cosmetic products … shall publish the inventory and shall update it periodically”. More  specifically under a mandate issued by the responsible service of the European Commission (SCCNFP/1891/98) : “that the SCCNFP shall act as a resource of scientific expertise to the European Commission, in terms of advising on (amongst other things) the scientific accuracy and validity of proposed entries, and the outstanding needs of the existing text/proposed improvements in subsequent updates…”

 

Apparently the SCCNFP met experts from European Industry and worked in collaboration with the JRC (Joint Research Centre) of the Commission, and co-operated with EFFA.

 

Previous Negative Opinions on the Inventory of Ingredients.

Of the European Inventory of Ingredients 1996 (original version), it has been said: “it is poor, contains mistakes, and has never been updated”, and “the first update approved by the SCCNFP has never been published officially” (- see http://www.beauty-on-line.com/regulation/hci2005/hci2005.pdf). This is fairly typical of an under-whelmed industry response to incarnations of the Inventory.

 

Cropwatch Comments on the Natural Ingredients Content of the Inventory:

Unfortunately, bio-literacy has never been the strong point of cosmetics expert committees, as evidenced by the poor scholarship of this Inventory with regard to natural aromatic materials. Further, if the SCCP, via its Opinions, wishes to continue to draw meaningful conclusions about the toxicology of individual natural products based on species-specific chemotaxonomic data, then this Inventory with its outdated and incorrect botanical classifications & mis-information, is completely inadequate for the task.  In summary:

 

1.  The SCCNFP/SCCP has failed to effectively carry out its allotted task to compile and regularly update an effective and scientifically accurate Inventory of Cosmetic Ingredients with respect to natural aromatic ingredients, as this shabby effort is riddled with fundamental botanical mistakes, does not follow the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, incorporates basic miscomprehensions about important ingredients, quite aside from an appalling lack of basic editing [e.g. floewrs for flowers, obtaiined for obtained]. The Inventory also misses out important natural raw materials, includes dangerous ingredients (banned IFRA), and even includes unethical plant & animal products, several of which are listed by CITES and appear as medicinal and aromatic plants in Annex D of EC Regulation No 338/97 and some additionally under Annex V of the EU Habitats, Fauna and Flora Directive – a situation which is particularly regrettable, if not at times quite morally indefensible.

 

  1. That the poor level of scholarship in the inventory has a knock-on damaging effect on subsequent EU legislation as these flawed ingredient entries have been used to botanically define commercial products in SCCP Opinions (e.g. that of Opoponax SCCP/0871/05). The statement by the SCCP that the Inventory should be: “…a tool of transparency and, in particular, in order to enable  the Commission to assess all issues relating to the use of cosmetics” is only valid if the Inventory is sufficiently accurate, up-to-date, sophisticated & authoritative – and the Inventory clearly isn’t any of these.

  1. It is painfully apparent that nobody in the SCCP has ever bothered to read the document – as even a fourteen-year-old schoolchild with a computer and internet access could list any number of content errors  within half a morning. The question arises again about re-organising the SCCP into a proper expert committee, with comprehensive intra-disciplinary skills, rather than being a compliant rubber stamp for some idealistic vision of an EU safety policy.

 

Cropwatch Corrections to the Inventory.

In this living document, Cropwatch has tried to list out some of the more basic mistakes in the inventory and areas where comments are needed. These are colour coded: the original incorrect, incomplete or ambiguous entries are listed in bold in black, and Cropwatch’s corrections/comments are added in bold in green. Invitations are invited from the trade and puiblic, to further update and improve the quality of the entries

 

Best viewed at  600 X 800 Resolution.

 

[ABIES PECTINATA NEEDLE OIL etc.]

Essential oil obtained from the needles of the fir Abies pectinata, Pinacea.

Abies pectinata De Colle is syn. Abies alba Miller (separately listed) – so this sp. is effectively double-listed in the inventory. Cropwatch recommends the removal of this whole entry.

 

ACACIA DECURRENS DEALBATA FLOWER EXTRACT

Extract obtained from the flower tips of the mimosa, Acacia decurrens, var.

dealbata, Leguminosae.

Mimosa commodities actually originate from either the flowers, flowers and leaves or leaves of Acacia dealbata Link. & A.  decurrens Willd. var. mollis gathered from S. France & Morocco.

 

ACORUS CALAMUS ROOT OIL

“Volatile oil obtained from the rhizomes of the calamus, Acorus calamus, Araceae. It contains β-asarone (up to 76%), calamene (about 4%), calamol (about 3%) α-asarone (about 1%), camphene (about 1%) and some β-pinene and asaronaldehyde.”

This information is misleading. More accurately, the diploid form of A. calamus L. has little or no b-asarone content, whereas triploid and tetraploid (or hexaploid) have considerable amounts (to 80%). European varieties are triploid, and have between 0-10% b-asarone. The US diploid variety A. calamus var. americanus (Raf.) Wulff has zero b-asarone content.

 

AMBERGRIS EXTRACT

Chem. Name: Ambergris, ext.

Unethical entry: animal product. The use of ambergris is prohibited because of the Washington Treaty, which bans the hunting of musk deer and whales. Ambergris comes from Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale), which is amongst the whale spp. listed under Appendix I of CITES.

 

ANGELICA ARCHANGELICA ROOT OIL

Essential oil obtained from the roots of the plant, Angelica archangelica,

Umbellifereae. It contains mainly D-α-phellandrene and cyclopentadecalactone. .

Angelica root and seed oils are mainly produced in Europe from A. archangelica ssp. archangelica var. sativa (Miller) Rikli, much more rarely from A. archangelica ssp archangelica var. norvegica (Rupr.) Riclik and A. archangelica ssp. littoralis (Fries) Thellung. Chinese angelica ‘oils (often extracts) are produced from A. sinensis (Oliv.) Diels; in Japan oils are produced from A. keiskei Koidz, and A. ursine Regel, and Himalayan angelica oil is also available from Angelica glauca Edgew., & A. archangelica L. var. himalaica (Clarke) G. Sing. Macrolides such as cyclopentadecalactone are minor components of some angelica oils, not major components as suggested above.

 

**This example shows that in order to define an essential oil, the Latin binomial and naming botanist, the country of origin and the chemotype are minimum requirements.

 

ANIBA ROSAEODORA AMAZONICA WOOD OIL

Volatile oil obtained from the wood of the tree Aniba rosaeodora var. amazonica,Lauraceae.

Rosewood oil Brazilian (syn. Bois-de-Rose oil) is derived from A. rosaeodora Ducke,   A. rosaeodora var. amazonica Ducke and other Aniba spp. such as A. amazonica  Ducke and A. ­ parviflora Meissner Mez (Fam. Lauraceae.

 

ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM EXTRACT

Extract obtained from the plant Anthoxanthum odoratum, Gramineae.

Nowhere is it mentioned that steam distillation of Anthoxanthum odoratum L. gives the well-known perfumery ingredient: flouve oil.

 

ARNICA MONTANA FLOWER OIL

Volatile oil distilled from the flowers of the arnica, Arnica montana, Ericaceae.

Unethical and ignorant entry – endangered species, listed in Annex D of EC Regulation No 338/97 and under Annex V of the EU Habitats, Fauna and Flora Directive. We quote from a Traffic Report Species in Danger (1998) “Member states of the EU should make full use of the provisions of Article 14 of the EC "Habitats Directive" and take measures to ensure that the taking in the wild and the exploitation of medicinal and aromatic plants is sustainable, especially in the case of Spain with regard to Arnica montana.” [According to Cropwatch’s information, Spain and Romania are the largest producers, whilst Germany is arguably the largest importer of Arnica montana commodities].

 

CANANGA ODORATA FLOWER OIL

Essential oil obtained from the flowers of the ylang-ylang, Cananga odorata, Annonaceae.

CANANGA ODORATA MACROPHYLLA FLOWER OIL

Chem. Name: Essential oil obtained from the flowers of the canadian (sic) ylang-ylang, Cananga odorata macrophylla, Annonaceae.

Pretty confusing. Cananga oils of commerce are produced exclusively in Java by steam distillation of the flowers of Cananga odorata (DC.) Hook f. et Thoms subsp. macrophylla.

Ylang-ylang oils on the other hand are produced mainly in Madagascar & the Comores by the steam distillation of the flowers of Cananga odorata (DC.) Hook f. et Thoms subsp. genuine, and graded into fractions (Extra superior, I, II & III) on the basis of density, which is somewhat proportional to distillation time.

 

CANARIUM COMMUNE GUM EXTRACT

Chem. Name: “Manila Elemi Resin; Elemi Gum”. Extract obtained from the resin exudate of the elemi, Canarium commune, Burseraceae.

Canarium luzonicum (Bl.) A. Gray is considered the source of commercially traded Manila elemi.

 

CASTOREUM OIL

Chem. Name: Oil produced from the sexual glands of Catoreum (sic) spp.

Unethical entry – animal product. Castoreum qualities are ethylic extracts of the accumulated dried material collected via secretory glands in the abdominal pouch of the Siberian beaver Castor fiber and the Canadian beaver C. canadensis living in Alaska, Canada and Siberia. The European beaver C. fiber is protected under EC Council Regulation No. 338/97 Annex B but C. canadensis is not protected. Nevertheless all respectable cosmetic companies do not employ animal derivatives such as castoreum in their products, but rather use synthetic castoreum replacements.

 

CEDRELA ODORATA WOOD OIL

Essential oil obtained from the wood of the tree, Cedrela odorata, Meliaceae.

Cedrela odorata L. is a threatened species: listed under Appendix III of CITES. Export of wood from Brazil is illegal..

 

CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA INALOOLIFERUM (sic) ROOT OIL

Duplicate entry; meant to be CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA LINALOOLIFERUM ROOT OIL, more correctly named Cinnamomum camphora L. var. linaloolifera Fujita and Cinnamomum camphora Sieb var. glavescens Hayata.

 

CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA INALOOLIFERUM (sic) WOOD OIL

Duplicate entry, meant to be CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA LINALOOLIFERUM ROOT OIL, but more correctly named Cinnamomum camphora L. var. linaloolifera Fujita and together with Cinnamomum camphora Sieb var. glavescens Hayata are both used to produce Ho oils.

 

COPAIFERA RETICULATA BALSAM OIL

“Copaiba Oil”. Volatile oil of the balsam obtained from the copaiba, Copaifera reticulata (syn: C. officinalis  (incorrect!)), Leguminosae.

Brazilian copaiba oleoresin is traditionally regarded as being tapped from from Copaifera reticulata Ducke, C. guainesis Desf. & C. multijuga Hayne, although Cascon & Gilbert (2000) looking at 3 Brazilian Copaifera oleoresin sources suggest that only C. multijuga can be the source of the commercial oil ex oleoresin. Columbian and Venezuelan copaiba oleoresin is produced from C. officianalis Jacq. High vacuum fractional distillation of the oleoresin furnishes copaiba balsam oil.

 

Ref: Cascon V. & Gilbert B. (2000) “Characterisation of the chemical composition of the oleoresin of Copaifera guaienesis Def., Copaifera duckei Dwyer & Copaifera multijuga Hayne”

 

CRYPTOCARYA MASSOY BARK OIL

Volatile oil obtained from the bark of the plant, Cryptocarya massoy,, Lauraceae.

The use of massoia bark oil from Cryptocaria massoia syn. Cryptocarya aromatica (Becc.) Kosterm in fragrances is banned IFRA because of its severe skin sensitising/irritative/phototoxic properties.  The oil contains >65% massoia lactone thought to be responsible for the adverse dermal effects.

 

CUMINUM CYMINUM FRUIT OIL

“Cumin Oil”. Volatile oil obtained from the fruits of the cumin, Cuminum cyminum, Umbelliferae. It contains cuminaldehyde (30-40%), p-cymene, β-pinene, DLlimonene.

We have known for over thirty years that the seed oil of Cuminum cyminum L. contains up to 60% aldehydes, mainly consisting of cuminic aldehyde, 3-p-menthen-7-al and 1,3-p-menthadien-7-al and 1,4-para-menthadien-7-al. Oil from freshly ground cumin contains mainly 1,4-para-menthadien-7-al which falls off progressively on storage, whilst the cuminaldehyde content progressively rises.

 

CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS LEAF EXTRACT OXIDIZED

Oxidized extract obtained from the leaves of the lemon grass, Cymbopogon citratus, Gramineae.

Another hypocritical entry, given the SCCP’s record of actions against other fragrance ingredients which allegedly show adverse skin reactions if oxidized.

 

DACRYDIUM FRANKLINII WOOD OIL

Chem. Name: Extract obtained from the rhizomes of the plant, Dacrydium franklinii, Podocarpaceae.

More usually  the oil steam distilled from the shavings or sawdust of the Huon Pine tree Dacrydium franklinii Hooker fil.

 

DIPTEROCARPUS TURBINATUS BALSAM OIL.

Gurjun balsam actually originates from tapping Dipterocarpus spp. such as  Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb., D. jourdainii Pierre, D. costatus Gaertner f., D. intricatus Dyer, D. alatus Roxb. ex G. Don, D. gracilis Blume, D. grandiflorus (Blanco) Blanco  etc. High vacuum fractional distillation or molecular distillation of the balsam furnishes the oil.

 

EUCALYPTUS MACULATA CITRIODORA LEAF EXTRACT

Extract obtained from the fresh leaves of the eucalyptus, Eucalyptus maculata citriodora, Myrtaceae.

Presumably referring to Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora (Hook) F.M. Bailey. Australian Eucalyptus maculata is now renamed Corymbia maculata, and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook (which some workers considered syn. Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora (Hook) F.M. Bailey, is renamed C. citriodora (Hook) K. Hill & L. Johnson.

 

EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLATA BUD, LEAF, STEM OILs etc.

Clove oils are now renamed Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill and Perry.

 

GRASS-HAY HERB OIL

Essential oil obtained from the herbs of various species of grass or hay (Gramineae).

See entry for Foin oil, from Lolium perenne L. & other spp.

 

GUAIACUM SANCTUM GUM OIL

Volatile oil the gum obtainedthe (sic) plant, Guaiacum sanctum, Zygophyllaceae.

Unethical entry and ignorant entry. Listed in Appendix II of CITES.

 

GAULTHERIA PROCUMBENS LEAF OIL

… ‘oil’ also produced from Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. in Nepal, India & China, athough this ‘oil’ may sometimes be a solvent extract of mashed &  24h. water-soaked leaves.

 

HELICHRYSUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM FLOWER OIL

Chem. Name: Volatile oil distilled from the flowers of the plant, Helichrysum angustifolim.

Typo, its angustifolium.

 

HELYCHRYSUM (sic) ITALICUM FLOWER EXTRACT

Extract obtained from the flowers of the plant, Helichrysum angustifolium, Compositae.

Two mistakes in this entry!

 

JASMINUM OFFICINALE FLOWER OIL

Volatile oil distilled from the flowers of the jasmine, Jasminum officinale, Oleaceae.

Jasmin oil from J. officinale L. or Jaminum grandiflorum L. grafted onto J. offinale L. rootstock, is a pretty rare commodity, not worth listing, since the absolute obtained via the ethanolic extraction of the concrete is the preferred item of commerce..

 

JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS FRUIT OIL

“Juniper Oil; Juniperberry Oil”. Extract obtained from the fruits of the juniper, Juniperus communis, Cupressaceae. It contains pinene, cadinene, camphene, terpineol, juniper camphor.

Restrictions: Only the rectified oils obtaiined (sic) by pyrolysis of the wood and twigs of J. Oxycedrus L. followed by fractional distillation in vacuo.

What has J. oxycedus (cade oil) got to do with J. communis (Juniper oil) ?

 

JUNIPERUS MEXICANA WOOD EXTRACT EPOXIDIZED

Chem. Name: Acetylated extract obtained from the wood of the juniper, Juniperus mexicana, Cupressaceae.

Difficult to see what acetylation has got to do with epoxidation!

 

LIPPIA CITRIODORA FLOWER OIL ABSOLUTE

Extract obtained from the flowering ends of the lemon verbena, Lippia citriodora, Verbenaceae.

Lemon Verbena oil & absolute are considered to originate from Aloysia triphylla (L’Herit) syn. Lippia citriodora (Ort. et Pers.) cultivated in Morocco & S.E. Europe, and wild-gathered widely over S. America. The oil of Lippia citriodora Kunth. was banned in perfumery (IFRA 1981), the absolute is restricted to 0.2% in fragranced products (IFRA 1987).

 

LITSEA CUBEBA FRUIT OIL

Chem. Name: Essential oil obtained from the fruits of the plant, Litsea cubeba, Lauraceae.

Chinese authorities say that in practice L. cubeba oil actually derives from several other Litsea spp. including L. euosma W. W. Sm. and L. mollifolia Chun.

 

LOLIUM PERENNE FRUIT EXTRACT

Extract obtained from the fruits of the plant, Lolium perenne, Gramineae.

LOLIUM PERENNE FRUIT OIL

Essential oil obtained from the fruits of the plant, Lolium perenne, Gramineae.

Common Name: LOLIUM PERENNE LEAF EXTRACT

Extract obtained from the leaves of the plant, Lolium perenne, Gramineae.

LOLIUM PERENNE LEAF OIL

Essential oil obtained from the leaves of the plant, Lolium perenne, Gramineae.

This is a complicated area but hay absolute and hay oils including many ‘foin’ qualities are traditionally obtained from certain grasses growing in the South of France including Lolium perenne L. and other Lolium spp. including Lolium italicum L., Phleum pratense (Timothy grass), Poa pratensis L. (Meadow grass), Cynosurus cristatus (Crested Dog’s-Tail), Anthoxylum odoratum L. and Melilotus spp. amongst others.

 

MELALEUCA LEUCADENDRON LEAF OIL

“Cajeput Oil”. Volatile oil distilled from the leaves of the cajeput, Melaleuca leucadendron, Myrtaceae..

Cajuput oil is in fact steam distilled from the leaves of Melaleuca ­cajuputi Powell which is often mistaken for M. leucadendron (as here).  Cajuput oil originates from S.E. Asia countries and as far as Australia; Australian oils are derived from M. cajuputi ssp. cajuputi, M. cajuputi ssp. cumigiana (Turczaninow) and the high a-pinene, low cineol containing M. cajuputi ssp. platyphylla Barlow.

 

M. leucadendron L., by the way, is now considered a complex of ten different species.

 

MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS HERB OIL

Volatile oil distilled from the herbs of the sweet clover, Melilotus officinalis, Leguminosae

Melilot absolute is the solvent extract of yellow sweet clover Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas, and Bokhara clover Melilotus alba Medic. ‘Clover oil’ as such was an early 20th Century concept, where fabrications based on amyl salicylate and other aromatic chemicals were used.

 

MENTHA PIPERITA AMERICAN HERB OIL

Chem. Name: “Pennyroyal Oil-American; Hedeoma Oil”. Essential oil obtained from the herbs of the American pennyroyal, Mentha piperita, Linn. pro parte, Hudson, Labiatae. It contains pulegone (up to 85%), two ketones, acetic, formic and isoheptanoic acis (sic). 

Complete confusion here. US Pennyroyal oil derives from Hedeoma pulegioides L. Pers., British & European pennyroyal oils derive from Mentha pulegium L., and Turkish pennyroyal oil comes from Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce ssp. brachycalyx P.H. Davis, and Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Druce ssp. barbata. Turkish pennyroyal oil is often passed off as European.

 

MYROCARPUS FASTIGIATUS WOOD OIL

Essential oil obtained from the wood of the plant, Myrocarpus fastigiatus,

MYROCARPUS FRONDOSUS WOOD OIL

Essential oil obtained from the wood of the plant, Myrocarpus frondosus,Leguminosae.

Joulain (1994) warns that commercial Cabreuva balsam is derived from spp. such as Myroxylon and should not be confused with the oil of Myrocarpus fastigiatus Fr. Allem­and. 

Ref: Joulain D. (1994) “The Success & Failures of Essential Oils – a Historical Overview” 4th Recontres Techniques et Economiques Nyons 5,6,7 Dec 1994 pp4-11

 

MYROXYLON BALSAMUM BALSAM OIL

Volatile oil of the balsam obtained from the bark exudate of Myroxylon balsamum, Leguminosae.

Err… perhaps this is a double entry and is meant to refer to Tolu balsam? (q.v.).

 

MYROXYLON TOLUIFERUM RESIN OIL

Essential oil of the resin obtained from the bark exudate of Myroxylon toluiferum, Leguminosae.

Most of the Tolu balsam available on the oils market is fabricated from other balsams, but where genuine, Tolu balsam is derived from Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms var. genuinum Harms, from whence the balsam oil is made by high vacuum of molecular distillation.

 

OPOPANAX CHIRONIUM RESIN STEAM-DISTILLED OIL

Chem. Name: Steam-distilled oil of the resin obtained from the plant, Opopanax chironium, Umbelliferae.

In practice opoponax qualities are (co-) gathered from Commiphora  erythrea Engl. (Somalia, Ethiopia, S. Arabia. Kenya), C. guidotti Chiov. ex Guidottii (Somalia, Ethiopia), C. holtiziana Engl. (Kenya) & C. kataf (Forssk.) Engl. (N. Kenya to S. Arabia).

 

PELARGONIUM ROSEUM LEAF EXTRACT

“Geranium Oil; Rose Geranium Oil”. Extract obtained from the leaves of the plant, Pelargonium roseum, Geraniaceae. It contains geraniol asters (sic) (20-35% as geranyl tiglate), citronellol, some lanalool (sic).

Geranium oils fall principally into three main categories: Bourbon (Reunion), geranium oil N. African type, and geranium oil Chinese. The geranium source material used to produce the oils are the various hybrids and forms of P. graveolens and other Pelargonium species such as P. capitatum Ait., P. crispum (L.) L’Heritier, P. roseum Willdenow (which some say classify as syn. P. radula (Cavanilles) l’Heritier ex Aiton, P. odoratissum Ait. etc. The rigid allocation of a species as in this example from the Inventory is therefore wishful thinking.

 

PERILLA FRUTESCENS FLOWER OIL

Essential oil obtained from the flowers of the plant, Perilla frutescens, Labiatae (syn: Perilla ocymoides, Labiatae).

Perilla ketone, a constituent to 40% of perilla oil from the leaves and flowering tops of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, is a powerful lung toxin. Cropwatch therefore regards this entry, with no accompanying warning, as completely hypocritical, given the SCCP’s past record of querying the toxicity of ingredients, which, compared with perilla oil, are relatively safe.  

 

PEUMUS BOLDUS LEAF OIL

Volatile oil obtained from the leaves of the boldo, Peumus boldus, Monimiaceae.

Similarly to the above entry, the SCCP fail to note the highly toxic and neurotoxic properties of this oil, and Cropwatch does not recommend the use of this oil from the leaves of Peumus boldus Molina in cosmetics.

 

POGOSTEMON CABLIN LEAF OIL

Extract obtained from the leaves of the patchouli, Pogostemon cablin (syn: Pogostemon patchouli), Labiatae. It contains patchouli alcohol, patchoulene, azulene, eugenol, sesquiterpenes.

Patchouli oil Indonesian is normally steam distilled from the dried leaves of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. An absolute, prepared by ethanolic extraction of the concrete, itself prepared by solvent (hexane) extraction of the dried leaves, is also an item of commerce. The steam distilled oil contains patchouli alcohol, and the sesquiterpenes: a- and b-patchoulene, seychellene, bulnesene, and a-guaiaene. Inferior odoured Chinese oils are also produced. [N.B. Eugenol is not a component of genuine patchouIi oil as stated but inferior patchouli oils from other Pogostemon spp. may contain it]. 

 

PINUS MUGO PUMILIO TWIG OIL.

Known as dwarf pine needle oils from Austria & Central & S.E. Europe (not twig oils as stated) these separate oils come from the steam distillation of the needles and twig tips of  Pinus mugo Turra subsp. mugo Zenan and Pinus mugo subsp. pumilio (Haenke) France respectively.

 

POLIANTHES TUBEROSA FLOWER OIL

Chem. Name: Essential oil obtained from the flowers of the tuberose, Polyanthes tuberosa, Amaryllidaceae.

But via distillation of the solvent extracted concrete! The absolute, prepared by alcoholic extraction of the concrete, is in far more common use that the oil.

 

RAVENSARA AROMATICA TWIG OIL

Essential oil obtained from the twigs of the plant, Ravensara aromatica, Lauraceae.

This leaf oil is more used in aromatherapy than cosmetics, being distilled from the leaves of Ravensara aromatica Sonnerat.

 

ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS FLOWER OIL

“Rosemary Oil”. Essential oil obtained from the fresh flowering tops of the rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis, Labiatae.

ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS LEAF OIL

Essential oil obtained from the leaves of the rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis,Labiatae.

ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS STEM OIL

Essential oil obtained from the sterms (sic) of the rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis,Labiatae.

Rosemary oil of commerce is produced from the steam distillation of the twigs and flowering tops of Rosmarinus officinalis L.  In the real world, poorer leaf and stem oils are not normally marketable. 1,8-Cineol (Tunisia, Algeria) & camphor chemotypes (Spain) are important commercially, although other (e.g. verbenone type) enjoy more minor production.

 

RUTA GRAVEOLENS HERB OIL

Essential oil obtained from the herbs of the rue, Ruta graveolens,

Rutaceae. It contains about 90% methyl nonyl ketone, methyl anthranilate.

Rue oils are actually produced from Ruta montana L. & Ruta graveolens L. & occasionally R. bracteosa L.; the flower and fruit oils contained 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone as major items, whilst the major leaf oil components are 2-nonyl acetate, 2-nonanone and 2-undecylate

 

SALVIA SCLAREA FLOWER OIL

Essential oil obtained from the flowers of the sage, Salvia sclarea, Labiatae.

In fact the oil is obtained from steam distillation of the flowering tops and foliage of Salvia sclarea L.

 

SALVIA LAVANDULIFOLIA HERB OIL

Essential oil obtained from the herbs of the sage, Salvia lavandulifolia, Labiatae.

SALVIA OFFICINALIS LAVANDULIFOLIA HERB OIL

Essential oil obtained from the herbs of the sage, Salvia officinalis var. lavandulifolia, Labiatae.

Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl. is the basionym over Salvia officinalis L. var. lavandulifolia ( Vahl ) O. de Bolòs & J. Vigo

 

[N.B.  a basionym is a specific or infraspecific name which has priority over other names later given to the same plant by different authors]

 

SATUREIA (sic) HORTENSIS OIL

Typo, its Satureja

 

SAUSSUREA LAPPA EXTRACT HYDROGENATED

Chem. Name: Hydrogenated extract obtained from the plant, Saussurea lappa.

Another unethical and particularly ignorant listing – it widely known that the over-exploited plant Saussurea lappa (Decne) C.B. Clarke is listed in Appendix I of CITES (from 1985) under the synonym S. costus.

 

SCHINUS MOLLE FRUIT OIL

Extract obtained from the fruits of the plant, Schinus molle, Anacardiaceae.

Essential oil of Schinus molle is steam distilled from the ripe berries (and invariably the leaves) of Schinus molle L.

 

SPARTIUM JUNCEUM FLOWER EXTRACT

Extract obtained from the flowers of the plant, Spartium junceum, Leguminosae.

Nowhere does the document say that Spartium junceum L. is better known as genet. Genet absolute is prepared from the alcoholic extraction of genet concrete, itself prepared by the solvent (hexane) extraction of the flowers of Spartium junceum L.

  

STYRAX BENZOIN RESIN EXTRACT

Chem. Name: “Styrax Resin Extract”. Extract obtained from the balsamic resin of the plant, Styrax benzoin, Styracaceae.

Sumatra benzoin actually comes from Styrax benzoin Dryander & S. paralleloneurus Perkins growing on Sumatra.

 

STYRAX BENZOIN RESIN OIL

Essetial (sic) oil obtained from the balsamic resin of the plant, Styrax benzoin, Styracaceae.

Benzoin oil is not an item of commerce; only the resinoid & solvent- fluidized resinoid are commercially obtainable. The resinoid is usually prepared by alcohol extraction.

 

STYRAX TONKINENSE RESIN EXTRACT

Chem. Name: “Gum Benzoin, Siam”. Extract obtained from the balsamic resin of the plant, Styrax tonkinense, Styracaceae.

Siam benzoin is obtained from Styrax tonkinensis (Pierre) Craib ex Hartwich (syn. Styrax tonkinense Pierre) sourced from Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia & Thailand. The resinoid is usually prepared by alcohol extraction.

 

FEEDBACK:  F. Chagnaud of CCEF Agroforex Company has pointed out that nowadays Styrax tonkinense qualities only come from Laos. Cropwatch accepts this is largely the case - up to this point Coppen's authoritative article had been taken as a source for information (Coppen J. (1999) "Benzoin: Production Uses and International Trade." Perf & Flav. 24 (May/June 1999) pp11-22). The author remarked at the time that benzoin from Vietnam (12 tons/year) did not necessarily represent indigenous production, but at the time of writing (1999) benzoin collection was still practiced west of Viet Tri in Vinh Hu province. The author also remarked that China also produced the commodity but used it solely for its' own internal consumption. 

 

THUJOPSIS DOLABRATA WOOD OIL

Essential oil obtained from the wood of the plant, Thujopsis dolabrata, Cupressaceae.

Hibawood oil is obtained from the steam distillation of sawdust and waste from Thujopsis dolabrata (L. fil.) Siebold et Zucc. var. hondai Makino.  Apparently Japan produced 4000 tons of this sawdust/annum. Formerly used as a perfumery ingredient, now widely regarded as an endangered species.

 

TAGETES PATULA FLOWER OIL

…and other listed Tagetes ‘flower’ oils: More often from the ariel parts of the whole herb.

 

TANACETUM VULGARE FLOWER OIL

“Tansy oil”. Essential oil obtained from the flowers of the tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, Compositae. It contains thujone, borneol, camphor.

This oil from the leaves and tops of Tanacetum vulgare L. (rather than the flowers) is little used because of toxicity concerns.

 

THUJA PLICATA STEM OIL

Chem. Name: Essential oil obtained from the stems of the thuja, Thuja plicata, Cupressaceae.

The term ‘stem’ is a bit incongruous since the giant tree T. plicata Donn ex D. Don can grow to several hundred feet.

 

TURPENTINE, OIL

“Any of the volatile predominately terpenic fractions or distillates resulting from the solvent extraction of, gum collection from, or pulping of softwoods.”

Turpentine oil is actually the volatile oil obtained by distilling pine resin, itself obtained by tapping trees specifically of the genus Pinus.

 

VANILLA PLANIFOLIA BEAN EXTRACT

Chem. Name: Extract obtained from the beans of the plant, Vanilla fragrans, Orchidaceae.

V. planifolia Andr. (Bourbon/Indonesian) is considered syn. V. fragrans (Salisb.) Ames; other spp. of Vanilla include V. tahitensis J.W. Moore (Tahitian vanilla) and the less important V. pompona Schneide (vanillons).

 

VERBENA OFFICINALIS LEAF RECTIFIED OIL

Rectified essential oil obtained from the leaves of the plant Verbena officinalis, Verbenaceae.

Verbena officinalis L. (verveine) commodities are little used in perfumery, & verbena oil is taken by many to refer to the commodity produced from Lemon Verbena Lippia citriodora H.B. & K. (q.v.).

 

VERBENA OFFICINALIS LEAF ABSOLUTE

Absolute obtained from the leaves of the plant Verbena officinalis, Verbenaceae.

Verberna officinalis L. (verveine) commodities are little used in perfumery, & verbena absolute is taken by many to refer to  the commodity produced from Lemon Verbena Lippia citriodora H.B. & K. (q.v.).

 

VALERIANA OFFICINALIS COLLINA ROOT OIL

“Valerian oil”. Essential oil obtained from the root of the valerian, Valeriana officinalis collina, Valerianaceae.

…now just plain Valeriana officinalis L.

 

VIVERRA CIVETTA

Civet (secretion) obtained from Viverra civetta.

Unethical entry: animal product.

Civet-producing animals listed in Appendix III of CITES:

Viverra civettina (India)

Viverra zibetha (India)

Viverricula indica (India)

Civettictis civetta (Botswana).

 

And What’s Not There in the Inventory…

Further suggestions from external contributors will be progressively added. Meanwhile here are some ideas about important omissions:

 

Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) Liang & A.R. Ferg.: Kiwi seed oil

Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd.: Kukui nut oil

Azadirachta indica  A. Juss.:  Neem oil, extracts

Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels: Argan oil.

Calophyllum inophyllum L.: Alexandra Laurel oil

Crocus sativus L.: Saffron oil, tincture etc.

Hippophae rhamnoides L.: Sea buckthorn oil

Leptospermum scoparium Forster & Forster f.: Manuka oil

Macadamia integrifolia: Maiden & Betche: Macadamia nut oil

Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake: Niaouli oil

Oenothera biennis L. Evening Primrose Oil

Orbignya phalerata C. Martius: Babassu oil

Rosa rubiginosa L.: Rose hip seed oil

Simmondsia chinensis C.K. Schneid: Jojoba oil

 

Best viewed at  600 X 800 Resolution.

Further suggestions from external contributors are welcomed and will be progressively added. Meanwhile here are some ideas about important omissions:

 

Send to info@cropwatch.org

 

 

 

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