Ingredients in Cosmetic Products: II. Perfume &
Cropwatch Sept 2005.
produced an Opinion (SCCNFP/0389/00 Final, adopted Oct. 2000) that the
Update of the Inventory of Ingredients employed in Cosmetic Products
Section II: Perfume and Aromatic Materials “had usefully improved the
Inventory”. Unfortunately nobody else much agrees.
for such an inventory dates back to Article 5a of the
Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC, which stipulates that “the Commission
shall compile an inventory of ingredients employed in cosmetic products
… shall publish the inventory and shall update it periodically”. More
a mandate issued by the responsible service of the European Commission (SCCNFP/1891/98)
the SCCNFP shall act as a resource of scientific expertise to the
European Commission, in terms of advising on (amongst other things) the
scientific accuracy and validity of proposed entries, and the
outstanding needs of the existing text/proposed improvements in
Apparently the SCCNFP met experts from
European Industry and worked in collaboration with the JRC (Joint
Research Centre) of the Commission, and co-operated with EFFA.
Previous Negative Opinions on the
Inventory of Ingredients.
Of the European Inventory of Ingredients
1996 (original version), it has been said: “it is poor, contains
mistakes, and has never been updated”, and “the first update approved by
the SCCNFP has never been published officially” (- see
This is fairly typical of an under-whelmed industry response to
incarnations of the Inventory.
on the Natural Ingredients Content of the Inventory:
bio-literacy has never been the strong point of cosmetics expert
committees, as evidenced by the poor scholarship of this Inventory with
regard to natural aromatic materials. Further, if the SCCP, via its Opinions,
wishes to continue to draw meaningful conclusions about the toxicology
of individual natural products based on species-specific chemotaxonomic
data, then this Inventory with its outdated and incorrect botanical
classifications & mis-information, is completely inadequate for the
task. In summary:
1. The SCCNFP/SCCP has
failed to effectively carry out its allotted task to compile and
regularly update an effective and scientifically accurate Inventory of
Cosmetic Ingredients with respect to natural aromatic ingredients,
as this shabby effort is riddled with fundamental botanical mistakes,
does not follow the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature,
incorporates basic miscomprehensions about important ingredients, quite
aside from an appalling lack of basic editing [e.g. floewrs for flowers,
obtaiined for obtained]. The Inventory also misses out important natural
raw materials, includes dangerous ingredients (banned IFRA), and even
includes unethical plant & animal products, several of which are listed
by CITES and appear as medicinal and aromatic plants in Annex D of
Regulation No 338/97 and some additionally under Annex V of the EU
Habitats, Fauna and Flora Directive– a
situation which is
particularly regrettable, if not at times quite morally indefensible.
That the poor level
of scholarship in the inventory has a knock-on damaging effect on
subsequent EU legislation
as these flawed ingredient entries have been used to botanically
define commercial products in SCCP Opinions (e.g. that of Opoponax
The statement by
the SCCP that the Inventory should be: “…a tool of transparency
and, in particular, in order to enable the Commission to assess all
issues relating to the use of cosmetics” is only valid if the
Inventory is sufficiently accurate, up-to-date, sophisticated &
authoritative – and the Inventory clearly isn’t any of these.
painfully apparent that nobody in the SCCP has ever bothered to read
– as even a fourteen-year-old schoolchild with a computer and internet
access could list any number of content errors within half a morning.
The question arises again about re-organising the SCCP into a
proper expert committee, with comprehensive intra-disciplinary
skills, rather than being a compliant rubber stamp for some idealistic
vision of an EU safety policy.
Cropwatch Corrections to the
In this living document, Cropwatch
has tried to list out some of the more basic mistakes in the inventory
and areas where comments are needed. These are colour coded: the
original incorrect, incomplete or ambiguous entries are listed in bold
and Cropwatch’s corrections/comments are added in bold in green.
Invitations are invited from the trade and puiblic, to further update
and improve the quality of the entries
at 600 X 800 Resolution.
PECTINATA NEEDLE OIL etc.]
oil obtained from the needles of the fir Abies pectinata, Pinacea.
De Colle is syn. Abies alba Miller (separately listed) – so this
sp. is effectively double-listed in the inventory. Cropwatch recommends
the removal of this whole entry.
DECURRENS DEALBATA FLOWER EXTRACT
obtained from the flower tips of the mimosa, Acacia decurrens, var.
Mimosa commodities actually originate from either the flowers, flowers
and leaves or leaves of
Link. & A. decurrens Willd. var. mollis gathered
from S. France & Morocco.
CALAMUS ROOT OIL
oil obtained from the rhizomes of the calamus, Acorus calamus,
Araceae. It contains β-asarone (up to 76%), calamene (about 4%),
calamol (about 3%) α-asarone (about 1%), camphene (about 1%) and some
β-pinene and asaronaldehyde.”
information is misleading. More accurately, the diploid form of A.
calamus L. has little or no b-asarone
content, whereas triploid and tetraploid (or hexaploid) have
considerable amounts (to 80%). European varieties are triploid, and have
between 0-10% b-asarone.
The US diploid variety A. calamus var. americanus (Raf.)
Wulff has zero b-asarone
entry: animal product. The
use of ambergris is prohibited because of the Washington Treaty, which
bans the hunting of musk deer and whales. Ambergris comes from
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale), which is amongst the whale
spp. listed under Appendix I of CITES.
ANGELICA ARCHANGELICA ROOT OIL
Essential oil obtained
from the roots of the plant, Angelica archangelica,
It contains mainly D-α-phellandrene and cyclopentadecalactone.
Angelica root and seed oils are mainly produced in Europe from
(Miller) Rikli, much more rarely from A.
(Rupr.) Riclik and
(Fries) Thellung. Chinese angelica ‘oils (often extracts) are produced
(Oliv.) Diels; in Japan oils are produced from
Regel, and Himalayan angelica oil is also available from
(Clarke) G. Sing. Macrolides such as cyclopentadecalactone are minor
components of some angelica oils, not major components as suggested
**This example shows that in order to define an essential oil, the Latin
binomial and naming botanist, the country of origin and the chemotype
are minimum requirements.
ROSAEODORA AMAZONICA WOOD OIL
oil obtained from the wood of the tree Aniba rosaeodora var.
oil Brazilian (syn. Bois-de-Rose oil) is derived from A. rosaeodora Ducke, A. rosaeodora
var. amazonica Ducke and other Aniba spp. such as
A. amazonica Ducke and A. parviflora Meissner Mez (Fam.
ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM EXTRACT
obtained from the plant Anthoxanthum odoratum, Gramineae.
it mentioned that steam distillation of Anthoxanthum odoratum
L. gives the well-known perfumery ingredient: flouve oil.
MONTANA FLOWER OIL
oil distilled from the flowers of the arnica, Arnica montana,
and ignorant entry – endangered species, listed in Annex D of EC
Regulation No 338/97 and under Annex V of the EU Habitats, Fauna and
Flora Directive. We quote from a Traffic Report Species in Danger
states of the EU should make full use of the provisions of Article 14 of
the EC "Habitats Directive" and take measures to ensure that the taking
in the wild and the exploitation of medicinal and aromatic plants is
sustainable, especially in the case of Spain with regard to Arnica
montana.” [According to Cropwatch’s information, Spain and Romania
are the largest producers, whilst Germany is arguably the largest
importer of Arnicamontana commodities].
ODORATA FLOWER OIL
oil obtained from the flowers of the ylang-ylang, Cananga odorata,
ODORATA MACROPHYLLA FLOWER OIL
Essential oil obtained from the flowers of the canadian (sic)
ylang-ylang, Cananga odorata macrophylla, Annonaceae.
Pretty confusing. Cananga oils of commerce are produced
exclusively in Java by steam distillation of the flowers of Cananga
odorata (DC.) Hook f. et Thoms subsp. macrophylla.
oils on the other hand are produced mainly in Madagascar & the Comores
by the steam distillation of the flowers of Cananga odorata (DC.)
Hook f. et Thoms subsp. genuine, and graded into fractions (Extra
superior, I, II & III) on the basis of density, which is somewhat
proportional to distillation time.
COMMUNE GUM EXTRACT
“Manila Elemi Resin; Elemi Gum”. Extract obtained from the resin exudate
of the elemi, Canarium commune, Burseraceae.
(Bl.) A. Gray is considered the source of commercially traded Manila
Oil produced from the sexual glands of Catoreum (sic) spp.
entry – animal product. Castoreum qualities are ethylic extracts of the
accumulated dried material collected via secretory glands in the
abdominal pouch of the Siberian beaver Castor fiber and the
Canadian beaver C. canadensis living in Alaska, Canada and
Siberia. The European beaver C. fiber is protected under EC
No. 338/97 Annex B but C. canadensis is not protected.
respectable cosmetic companies do not employ animal derivatives such as
castoreum in their products, but rather use synthetic castoreum
ODORATA WOOD OIL
oil obtained from the wood of the tree, Cedrela odorata, Meliaceae.
odorata L. is a threatened species: listed under Appendix III of
CITES. Export of wood from Brazil is illegal..
CAMPHORA INALOOLIFERUM (sic) ROOT OIL
Duplicate entry; meant to be CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA
ROOT OIL, more correctly named
L. var. linaloolifera Fujita and Cinnamomum camphora Sieb
var. glavescens Hayata.
CAMPHORA INALOOLIFERUM (sic) WOOD OIL
Duplicate entry, meant to be CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA
ROOT OIL, but more correctly named
L. var. linaloolifera Fujita and together with Cinnamomum
camphora Sieb var. glavescens Hayata are both used to produce
RETICULATA BALSAM OIL
Oil”. Volatile oil of the balsam obtained from the copaiba, Copaifera
reticulata (syn: C. officinalis
Brazilian copaiba oleoresin is traditionally regarded as
being tapped from from Copaifera reticulata Ducke, C.
guainesis Desf. & C. multijuga Hayne, although Cascon &
Gilbert (2000) looking at 3 Brazilian Copaifera oleoresin sources
suggest that only C. multijuga can be the source of the
commercial oil ex oleoresin. Columbian and Venezuelan copaiba oleoresin
is produced from C. officianalis Jacq. High vacuum fractional
distillation of the oleoresin furnishes copaiba balsam oil.
Ref:Cascon V. &
Gilbert B. (2000) “Characterisation of the chemical composition of the
oleoresin of Copaifera guaienesis Def., Copaifera duckei
Dwyer & Copaifera multijuga Hayne”
oil obtained from the bark of the plant, Cryptocarya massoy,,
The use of
massoia bark oil from Cryptocaria massoia syn. Cryptocarya
aromatica (Becc.) Kosterm in fragrances is banned IFRA because of
its severe skin sensitising/irritative/phototoxic properties. The oil
contains >65% massoia lactone thought to be responsible for the adverse
CYMINUM FRUIT OIL
Oil”. Volatile oil obtained from the fruits of the cumin, Cuminum
cyminum, Umbelliferae. It contains cuminaldehyde (30-40%), p-cymene,
known for over thirty years that the seed oil of Cuminum cyminum
L. contains up to 60% aldehydes, mainly consisting of cuminic aldehyde,
3-p-menthen-7-al and 1,3-p-menthadien-7-al and 1,4-para-menthadien-7-al.
Oil from freshly ground cumin contains mainly 1,4-para-menthadien-7-al
which falls off progressively on storage, whilst the cuminaldehyde
content progressively rises.
CITRATUS LEAF EXTRACT OXIDIZED
extract obtained from the leaves of the lemon grass, Cymbopogon
entry, given the SCCP’s record of actions against other fragrance
ingredients which allegedly show adverse skin reactions if oxidized.
DACRYDIUM FRANKLINII WOOD OIL
Extract obtained from the rhizomes of the plant, Dacrydium franklinii,
usually the oil steam distilled from the shavings or sawdust of the
Huon Pine tree
DIPTEROCARPUS TURBINATUS BALSAM OIL.
balsam actually originates from tapping Dipterocarpus spp. such
Roxb., D. jourdainii Pierre, D. costatus Gaertner f.,
D. intricatus Dyer, D. alatus Roxb. ex G. Don, D. gracilis
Blume, D. grandiflorus (Blanco) Blanco etc. High vacuum
fractional distillation or molecular distillation of the balsam
furnishes the oil.
MACULATA CITRIODORA LEAF EXTRACT
obtained from the fresh leaves of the eucalyptus, Eucalyptus maculata
referring to Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora (Hook)
F.M. Bailey. Australian Eucalyptus maculata is now renamed
Corymbia maculata, and Eucalyptus citriodora Hook (which some
workers considered syn. Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora
(Hook) F.M. Bailey, is renamed C. citriodora (Hook) K. Hill & L.
CARYOPHYLLATA BUD, LEAF, STEM OILs etc.
are now renamed Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill and Perry.
oil obtained from the herbs of various species of grass or hay (Gramineae).
See entry for Foin oil, from Lolium perenne L. &
SANCTUM GUM OIL
oil the gum obtainedthe (sic) plant,
Guaiacum sanctum, Zygophyllaceae.
Unethical entry and ignorant entry. Listed in Appendix II
PROCUMBENS LEAF OIL
… ‘oil’ also
produced from Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. in Nepal,
India & China, athough this ‘oil’ may sometimes be a solvent extract of
mashed & 24h. water-soaked leaves.
ANGUSTIFOLIUM FLOWER OIL
Volatile oil distilled from the flowers of the plant, Helichrysum
(sic) ITALICUM FLOWER EXTRACT
obtained from the flowers of the plant, Helichrysum angustifolium,
in this entry!
OFFICINALE FLOWER OIL
oil distilled from the flowers of the jasmine, Jasminum officinale,
from J. officinale L. or Jaminum grandiflorum L. grafted
onto J. offinale L. rootstock, is a pretty rare commodity, not
worth listing, since the absolute obtained via the ethanolic extraction
of the concrete is the preferred item of commerce..
COMMUNIS FRUIT OIL
Oil; Juniperberry Oil”. Extract obtained from the fruits of the juniper,
Juniperus communis, Cupressaceae. It contains pinene, cadinene,
camphene, terpineol, juniper camphor.
Restrictions: Only the
rectified oils obtaiined (sic) by
pyrolysis of the wood and twigs of J. Oxycedrus L. followed by
fractional distillation in vacuo.
J. oxycedus (cade oil) got to do with J. communis (Juniper
MEXICANA WOOD EXTRACT EPOXIDIZED
Acetylated extract obtained from the wood of the juniper, Juniperus
to see what acetylation has got to do with epoxidation!
CITRIODORA FLOWER OIL ABSOLUTE
obtained from the flowering ends of the lemon verbena, Lippia
Lemon Verbena oil & absolute are considered to originate from Aloysia
(L’Herit) syn. Lippia citriodora (Ort. et Pers.)
cultivated in Morocco & S.E. Europe, and wild-gathered widely over S.
America. The oil of Lippia citriodora Kunth. was banned in
perfumery (IFRA 1981), the absolute is restricted to 0.2% in fragranced
products (IFRA 1987).
CUBEBA FRUIT OIL
Essential oil obtained from the fruits of the plant, Litsea cubeba,
authorities say that in practice L. cubeba oil actually derives
from several other Litsea spp. including L. euosma
W. W. Sm. and L. mollifolia Chun.
PERENNE FRUIT EXTRACT
obtained from the fruits of the plant, Lolium perenne, Gramineae.
PERENNE FRUIT OIL
oil obtained from the fruits of the plant, Lolium perenne,
Name: LOLIUM PERENNE LEAF EXTRACT
obtained from the leaves of the plant, Lolium perenne, Gramineae.
PERENNE LEAF OIL
oil obtained from the leaves of the plant, Lolium perenne,
This is a complicated area but hay absolute and hay oils including many
‘foin’ qualities are traditionally obtained from certain grasses growing
in the South of France including Lolium perenne L. and other
Lolium spp. including Lolium italicum L., Phleum pratense
(Timothy grass), Poa pratensis L. (Meadow grass),
Cynosurus cristatus (Crested Dog’s-Tail), Anthoxylum odoratum
L. and Melilotus spp. amongst others.
LEUCADENDRON LEAF OIL
Oil”. Volatile oil distilled from the leaves of the cajeput,
Melaleuca leucadendron, Myrtaceae..
is in fact steam distilled from the leaves of Melaleuca cajuputi
Powell which is often mistaken for M. leucadendron (as here).
Cajuput oil originates from S.E. Asia countries and as far as
Australia; Australian oils are derived from M. cajuputi ssp.
ssp. cumigiana (Turczaninow) and the high a-pinene,
low cineol containing M. cajuputi ssp. platyphylla Barlow.
leucadendron L., by the way, is now considered a complex of ten
OFFICINALIS HERB OIL
oil distilled from the herbs of the sweet clover,Melilotus
absolute is the solvent extract of yellow sweet clover Melilotus officinalis
(L.) Pallas, and Bokhara clover Melilotus alba Medic. ‘Clover
oil’ as such was an early 20th Century concept, where
fabrications based on amyl salicylate and other aromatic chemicals were
PIPERITA AMERICAN HERB OIL
“Pennyroyal Oil-American; Hedeoma Oil”. Essential oil obtained from the
herbs of the American pennyroyal, Mentha piperita, Linn. pro
parte, Hudson, Labiatae. It contains pulegone (up to 85%),
two ketones, acetic, formic and isoheptanoic acis (sic).
confusion here.US Pennyroyal oil
L. Pers., British & European pennyroyal oils derive from Mentha
pulegium L., and Turkish pennyroyal oil comes from Micromeria
fruticosa (L.) Drucessp. brachycalyx P.H. Davis, and
Micromeria fruticosa (L.) Drucessp. barbata.
Turkish pennyroyal oil is often passed off as European.
FASTIGIATUS WOOD OIL
oil obtained from the wood of the plant, Myrocarpus fastigiatus,
FRONDOSUS WOOD OIL
oil obtained from the wood of the plant, Myrocarpus
Joulain (1994) warns that commercial Cabreuva balsam is derived from
spp. such as
and should not be confused with the oil of
Myrocarpusfastigiatus Fr. Allemand.
Ref: Joulain D. (1994) “The Success & Failures of Essential Oils – a
Historical Overview” 4th Recontres Techniques et
Economiques Nyons 5,6,7 Dec 1994 pp4-11
BALSAMUM BALSAM OIL
oil of the balsam obtained from the bark exudate of Myroxylon
perhaps this is a double entry and is meant to refer to Tolu balsam?
TOLUIFERUM RESIN OIL
oil of the resin obtained from the bark exudate of Myroxylon
Most of the Tolu balsam available on the
oils market is fabricated from other balsams, but where genuine, Tolu
balsam is derived from Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms var.
genuinum Harms, from whence the balsam oil is made by high vacuum of
CHIRONIUM RESIN STEAM-DISTILLED OIL
Steam-distilled oil of the resin obtained from the plant, Opopanax
opoponax qualities are (co-) gathered from Commiphora
erythrea Engl. (Somalia, Ethiopia, S. Arabia. Kenya), C.
ex Guidottii (Somalia, Ethiopia), C. holtiziana Engl. (Kenya) &
C. kataf (Forssk.) Engl. (N. Kenya to S. Arabia).
ROSEUM LEAF EXTRACT
Oil; Rose Geranium Oil”. Extract obtained from the leaves of the plant,
Pelargonium roseum, Geraniaceae. It contains geraniol asters
(sic) (20-35% as geranyl tiglate),
citronellol, some lanalool (sic).
oils fall principally into three main categories: Bourbon (Reunion),
geranium oil N. African type, and geranium oil Chinese. The geranium
source material used to produce the oils are the various hybrids and
forms of P. graveolens and other Pelargonium species such
as P. capitatum Ait., P. crispum (L.) L’Heritier, P.
roseum Willdenow (which some say classify as syn. P. radula (Cavanilles)
l’Heritier ex Aiton, P.odoratissum Ait. etc. The rigid
allocation of a species as in this example from the Inventory is
therefore wishful thinking.
FRUTESCENS FLOWER OIL
oil obtained from the flowers of the plant, Perilla frutescens,
Labiatae (syn: Perilla ocymoides, Labiatae).
ketone, a constituent to 40% of perilla oil from the leaves and
flowering tops of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton, is a powerful
lung toxin. Cropwatch therefore regards this entry, with no accompanying
warning, as completely hypocritical, given the SCCP’s past record of
querying the toxicity of ingredients, which, compared with perilla oil,
are relatively safe.
BOLDUS LEAF OIL
oil obtained from the leaves of the boldo, Peumus boldus, Monimiaceae.
the above entry, the SCCP fail to note the highly toxic and neurotoxic
properties of this oil, and Cropwatch does not recommend the use of this
oil from the leaves of Peumus boldus Molina in cosmetics.
POGOSTEMON CABLIN LEAF OIL
Extract obtained from
the leaves of the patchouli, Pogostemon cablin (syn:
Pogostemon patchouli), Labiatae. It contains patchouli alcohol,
patchoulene, azulene, eugenol, sesquiterpenes.
oil Indonesian is normally steam distilled from the dried leaves of
Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. An absolute, prepared by ethanolic
extraction of the concrete, itself prepared by solvent (hexane)
extraction of the dried leaves, is also an item of commerce. The steam
distilled oil contains patchouli alcohol, and the sesquiterpenes: a-
seychellene, bulnesene, and a-guaiaene.
Inferior odoured Chinese oils are also produced. [N.B. Eugenol is not a
component of genuine patchouIi oil as stated but inferior patchouli oils
from other Pogostemon spp. may contain it].
PUMILIO TWIG OIL.
Known as dwarf pine needle oils from Austria & Central &
S.E. Europe (not twig oils as stated) these separate oils come from the
steam distillation of the needles and twig tips of Pinus mugo
Turra subsp. mugo Zenan and Pinus mugo subsp. pumilio
(Haenke) France respectively.
TUBEROSA FLOWER OIL
Essential oil obtained from the flowers of the tuberose, Polyanthes
distillation of the solvent extracted concrete! The absolute, prepared
by alcoholic extraction of the concrete, is in far more common use that
AROMATICA TWIG OIL
oil obtained from the twigs of the plant, Ravensara aromatica,
oil is more used in aromatherapy than cosmetics, being distilled from
the leaves of Ravensara aromatica Sonnerat.
OFFICINALIS FLOWER OIL
Oil”. Essential oil obtained from the fresh flowering tops of the
rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis, Labiatae.
OFFICINALIS LEAF OIL
oil obtained from the leaves of the rosemary, Rosmarinus
OFFICINALIS STEM OIL
oil obtained from the sterms (sic) of
the rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis,Labiatae.
Rosemary oil of commerce is produced from the steam
distillation of the twigs and flowering tops of Rosmarinus
officinalis L. In the real world, poorer leaf and stem oils are not
normally marketable. 1,8-Cineol (Tunisia, Algeria) & camphor chemotypes
(Spain) are important commercially, although other (e.g. verbenone type)
enjoy more minor production.
GRAVEOLENS HERB OIL
oil obtained from the herbs of the rue, Ruta graveolens,
It contains about 90% methyl nonyl ketone, methyl anthranilate.
Rue oils are actually produced from
L. & Ruta graveolens L. & occasionally R. bracteosa L.;
the flower and fruit oils contained 2-nonanone and 2-undecanone as major
items, whilst the major leaf oil components are 2-nonyl acetate,
2-nonanone and 2-undecylate
SCLAREA FLOWER OIL
oil obtained from the flowers of the sage, Salvia sclarea, Labiatae.
the oil is obtained from steam distillation of the flowering tops and
foliage of Salvia sclarea L.
SALVIA LAVANDULIFOLIA HERB OIL
oil obtained from the herbs of the sage, Salvia lavandulifolia,
OFFICINALIS LAVANDULIFOLIA HERB OIL
oil obtained from the herbs of the sage, Salvia officinalis var.
Vahl. is the basionym over Salviaofficinalis L. var.
lavandulifolia ( Vahl ) O. de Bolòs & J. Vigo
basionym is a specific or infraspecific name which has priority over
other names later given to the same plant by different authors]
(sic) HORTENSIS OIL
LAPPA EXTRACT HYDROGENATED
Hydrogenated extract obtained from the plant, Saussurea lappa.
Another unethical and particularly ignorant listing – it
widely known that the over-exploited plant Saussurea lappa
(Decne) C.B. Clarke is listed in Appendix I of CITES (from 1985) under
the synonym S. costus.
MOLLE FRUIT OIL
obtained from the fruits of the plant, Schinus molle, Anacardiaceae.
Essential oil of Schinus molle is steam distilled
from the ripe berries (and invariably the leaves) of Schinus molle
JUNCEUM FLOWER EXTRACT
obtained from the flowers of the plant, Spartium junceum, Leguminosae.
does the document say that Spartium junceum
L. is better known as genet. Genet absolute is prepared from the
alcoholic extraction of genet concrete, itself prepared by the solvent
(hexane) extraction of the flowers of Spartium junceum L.
BENZOIN RESIN EXTRACT
“Styrax Resin Extract”. Extract obtained from the balsamic resin of the
plant, Styrax benzoin, Styracaceae.
Sumatra benzoin actually comes from Styrax
benzoin Dryander & S. paralleloneurus Perkins growing on
BENZOIN RESIN OIL
(sic) oil obtained from the balsamic
resin of the plant, Styrax benzoin, Styracaceae.
oil is not an item of commerce; only the resinoid & solvent- fluidized
resinoid are commercially obtainable. The resinoid
is usually prepared by alcohol extraction.
TONKINENSE RESIN EXTRACT
Name: “Gum Benzoin, Siam”. Extract obtained from the balsamic resin of
the plant, Styrax tonkinense, Styracaceae.
Siam benzoin is obtained from Styrax tonkinensis
(Pierre) Craib ex Hartwich (syn. Styrax tonkinense Pierre)
sourced from Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia & Thailand. The resinoid is
usually prepared by alcohol extraction.
Chagnaud of CCEF Agroforex Company has pointed out that nowadays
Styrax tonkinense qualities only come from
accepts this is largely the case -
up to this point Coppen's authoritative article
had been taken as a source for information (Coppen J. (1999) "Benzoin:
Production Uses and International Trade." Perf & Flav. 24
(May/June 1999) pp11-22). The author remarked at the time that benzoin
from Vietnam (12 tons/year) did not necessarily represent indigenous
production, but at the time of writing (1999) benzoin collection was
still practiced west of Viet Tri in Vinh Hu province. The author also
remarked that China also produced the commodity but used it solely for
its' own internal consumption.
DOLABRATA WOOD OIL
oil obtained from the wood of the plant, Thujopsis dolabrata,
oil is obtained from the steam distillation of sawdust and waste from
fil.) Siebold et Zucc. var. hondai Makino. Apparently Japan
produced 4000 tons of this sawdust/annum. Formerly used as a perfumery
ingredient, now widely regarded as an endangered species.
PATULA FLOWER OIL
listed Tagetes ‘flower’ oils: More often from the ariel parts of
the whole herb.
VULGARE FLOWER OIL
oil”. Essential oil obtained from the flowers of the tansy, Tanacetum
vulgare, Compositae. It contains thujone, borneol, camphor.
from the leaves and tops of Tanacetum vulgare L. (rather than the
flowers) is little used because of toxicity concerns.
PLICATA STEM OIL
Essential oil obtained from the stems of the thuja, Thuja plicata,
‘stem’ is a bit incongruous since the giant tree T. plicata Donn
ex D. Don can grow to several hundred feet.
of the volatile predominately terpenic fractions or distillates
resulting from the solvent extraction of, gum collection from, or
pulping of softwoods.”
Turpentine oil is
actually the volatile oil obtained by distilling pine resin, itself
obtained by tapping trees specifically of the genus Pinus.
PLANIFOLIA BEAN EXTRACT
Extract obtained from the beans of the plant, Vanilla fragrans,
V.planifolia Andr. (Bourbon/Indonesian) is considered syn. V.
fragrans (Salisb.) Ames; other spp. of Vanilla include V. tahitensis
J.W. Moore (Tahitian vanilla) and the less important V. pompona
OFFICINALIS LEAF RECTIFIED OIL
essential oil obtained from the leaves of the plant Verbena
L. (verveine) commodities are little used in perfumery, & verbena oil is
taken by many to refer to the commodity produced from Lemon Verbena
Lippia citriodora H.B. & K. (q.v.).
OFFICINALIS LEAF ABSOLUTE
obtained from the leaves of the plant Verbena officinalis,
L. (verveine) commodities are little used in perfumery, & verbena
absolute is taken by many to refer to the commodity produced from Lemon
Verbena Lippia citriodora H.B. & K. (q.v.).
OFFICINALIS COLLINA ROOT OIL
oil”. Essential oil obtained from the root of the valerian, Valeriana
officinalis collina, Valerianaceae.
…now just plain Valeriana officinalis L.
(secretion) obtained from Viverra civetta.
Unethical entry: animal product.
Civet-producing animals listed in Appendix III of
Viverricula indica (India)
And What’s Not There in the
Further suggestions from external
contributors will be progressively added. Meanwhile here are some ideas
about important omissions: