The Agarwood Files





A Bibliography Data-base Complied by Cropwatch






Kim Y.C., Jeong S.J., Kim H.M. (1

Alkhathlan H.Z., AL-Hazimi H.M., AL-Dhalaan F.S. & Mousa A.A. (2005) "Three 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones and two terpenes from agarwood" Natural Product Research 19(4), 367 - 372.

Barden A., Awang A., Mulliken T. & Song M. (2000) Heart of the matter: Agarwood use and trade and CITES implementation for A. malaccensis. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge, UK.

Barman H.K. & Nath R.K. "Pathogenicity of entomopathegenic fungi Beauveria bassiana on Heortia vitessoides, a major in sect pest of Aquilaria agallocha in Assam." Insect Environment 8(2), 79-80.

Baruah J.N., Mathur R.K., Jain S.M. & Kataky J.C.S. (1982) "Agarwood." In Cultivation and Utilisation of Aromatic Plants Atal C.K. & Kapur B.M. eds. CSIR Jammu-Tawi, India pp 662-667.

Battacharyya B., Datta A., Barauah H.K. (1952) " On the formation and development of Agaru in A. agallocha" Sci & Cult 18(5), 240-243.

Beniwal B.S. (1989) "Silvical characteristics of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb." Indian Forester 115(1), 17-21.

Bhandari P., Pant P., & Rastogi R.P. (1982) "Aquillochin, a coumarinolignan from Aquilaria agallocha" Phytochemistry 21(8), 2147-2149.

Bhaskar V. (1984) "Seed germination of Agarwood tree (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) under Bangalore Conditions." Myforest 20(1), 2-3.

Blanchette R.A., Van Beek, H.H.  (2002) Cultivated Agarwood. Eu Patent No WO02094002 pub. date 2001-11-28. Abstract: The present invention provideds agarwood and/or agarwood resin from cultivated trees, and methods of generating agarwood and/or agarwood resin in cultivated trees.


Boruah J.N., Mathur R.K., Jain S.M. & Kataky JCS (1982) "Agarwood." In CK Atal & BM Kapur (eds) Cultivation and Utilisation of Aromatic Plants RRL Jammu-Tawi, Atal 0662-667.

Bose S.R. (1934) "The Nature of Agar formation" Sci & Cult 4(2), 89-91.

Bose S.R. (1939) "Enzymes of wood-rotting fungi" Ergeb. Enzymforsch 8, 267-276

Broad S. (1995) "Agarwood Harvesting in Vietnam." TRAFFIC Bulletin- Wildlife Trade Monitoring Unit 1995 15(2), 96 Traffic International.

Burfield T. (1994) Presentation to the British Society of Perfumery, Hilton Hotel, Milton Keynes, UK 1994 (as reported in SPC June 1994 p63).

Burfield T. "Oud (aka Aloeswood or Agarwood Oil) Scensitivity 

Burkhill I.H. (1935) Dictionary of economic products of the Malay Peninsula Vols 1-2 Crown Agents for the Colonies, London, Vol 1 A-H.

Chakrabarty K., Kuner A., & Manon V. (1994) Trade in Agarwood WWF-India Traffic India, New Delhi.

Chang Y.S., Nor-Azah M.A. Abu-Said A., Lok E.H., Reader S., Spiers A. (2002) "Gaharu" FRIM - Technical Information Forest Research Institute Malaysia No 69. pub. Forest Research Instit. Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Chaudhari D.C. (1993) "Agarwood from Aquilaria malaccensis, Lam. (A. agallocha Roxb.) MFP News 3(4) pp 12-13.

Chengbung Y, Yuanhui L (1980) "Anatomical and histochemical studies on oleoresin formation in the wood of Aquilaria sinensis" 4th Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices, Bangcock (Thailand) 15-19 Sep 1980 4th Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices Abstracts, Mahidol Univ, Bangcock, Thailand. Fac. Of Science, Dept of Chem Bangcock, Thailand 1980 p108.

Clifford T. (1984) Tibetan Buddhist Medicine & Pschiatry: The Diamond Healing Motilal Barnarsidas Publishers Pvt Ltd Delhi p207-8.

CIMAP (1997) Indian Medicinal Plants Facing Genetic Erosion p46-7.

Clear A. (2000) "Gaharu mania sweeps across Irian-Java." Crazy-Man Documentaries - see

Compton, J. G. S., and F. A. Zich (2002) "Gyrinops ledermannii (Thymelaceae) being an agarwood-producing species prompts call for further examination of taxonomic implications in the generic delimitation between Aquilaria and Gyrinops." Flora Malesiana Bulletin 13(1), 61-65.

Connolly J.D., McCrindle R., Murray R.D.H., Renfrew A.J. (1966) "Constituents of Aquilaria agallocha - Erythroxydiols" J Chem Soc ??

Corner E.J.H. (1940) Wayside Trees of Malaya Vol 2 Govt. Printer, Singapore.

Dass D.K. (1963) "The Agar Industry in Pakistan" Pakistan Jour Forestry 13(2), 194-197.

Debenath B., Sinha S. (1993) "Chromosome studies in Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.: A New Report" Cell & Chromosome Research 16(1), 38.

Debnath B., Sil S., Sinha R.K. & Sinha S. (1995) "Chromosome number and karotype of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. (Thymelaeaceae)" Cytologia 60(4), 407-409

Domke, W. (1932) Zur Kenntnis einiger Thymelaeraceen. Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin - Dahlem 11, 348-363.

Donovan D.G. & Puri R.K. (2004) "Learning from traditional knowledge of non-timber forest products: Penan Benalui and the autecology of Aquilaria in Indonesian Borneo". Ecology and Society 9(3): 3.

Abstract. Traditional knowledge, promoted to make conservation and development more relevant and socially acceptable, is shown to have an important role in identifying critical research needs in tropical ecology. Botanists, foresters, and phytochemists, among others, from many countries have sought for decades to understand the process of resin formation in the genus Aquilaria, a tropical forest tree of South and Southeast Asia. Not every tree develops the resin and, despite extensive scientific research, this process remains poorly understood. Attempts at cultivating the valuable aromatic resin, gaharu, have been uneven at best. Thus, gaharu remains largely a natural forest product, increasingly under threat as the trees are overexploited and forest is cleared. In this paper, we compare scientific knowledge and traditional knowledge of the Penan Benalui and other forest product collectors of Indonesian Borneo. Although limited management of wildlings failed to bring the resin-producing species under cultivation, we found that the Penan recognize the complex ecology of resin formation involving two, or maybe three, living organisms-the tree, one or more fungi, and possibly an insect intermediary. Developing a sustainable production system for this resource will require a clear understanding of how these various natural elements function, separately and synergistically. Traditional knowledge can help fill gaps in our information base and identify promising areas for future research. Both correspondence and gaps in knowledge support the call for a greater role for ethnobiological research and interdisciplinary cooperation, especially between ethnobiologists and foresters, in developing sustainable management systems for this traditional resource and its natural habitat.

Edwards, Victoria "The Oil of Ud" Aromatherapy Quarterly
Vol 50 Autumn 1996


Eurlings, M. C. M. and B. Gravendeel (Submitted). “Identification of gaharu ( Aquilaria and Gyrinops) dry wood using trnL-trnF polymorphisms.”


Eurlings M.C.M & Gravendeel B. (2005) “TrnL-trnF sequence data imply paraphyly of Aquilaria & Gyrinops (Thymelaeaceae) and provide new perspectives for agarwood identification”. Plant Systematics & Evolution 254(1-2), 1-12.

Abstract: The genera Aquilaria & Gyrinops (Thymelaceae, Malvales) are well known for the production of agarwood which is a highly wanted forest product of substantial economic value. The taxonomic status of Aquilaria & Gyrinops as separate genera is doubted as they are only distinguished by the number of stamens. We investigated their status by conducting phylogenic analyses of DNA sequences from the plasmid trnL-trnF spacer. Control of international trade of agarwood is directly hampered by the failure of traditional methods such as microscopy to identify samples to species level. We therefore evaluated the potential of molecular identification of agarwood by searching for species- and region-specific plastid DNA polymorphisms. DNA sequences were obtained from 31 Thymelaeaceae  accessions encompassing 20 different species in six genera. Aquilaria & Gyrinops appear to be paraphyletic. Success in sequencing wood samples demonstrates that molecular markers provide new perspectives for agarwood. 


Franchomme P. & Peneol D. (1990) l'aromathérapie excactment pub. Jollois.

Foucaud A, Reveillere H, & Mahe M. (1968) "Aloes-wood, agalloch-wood, eagle-wood" Presse Med. 1968 76(21), 1028-9.

Gatten, Aileen (1977) "A Wisp of Smoke" Monumenta Nipponica 32, 35-48.

Guha S.R.D. & Karita B.C. (1976) "Chemical Pulps for Writing & Printing Papers from Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. (Agarwood)." Indian Pulp & Paper 30(6) 16-17.

Gianno R. (1986) "The exploitation of Resinous Products in a lowland Malayan forest" Wallaceana 43, 3-6.

Gianno R. (1990) Semelai culture and Resin Technololgy. Conneticut Academy of Arts & Sciences, New Haven.

Gibson I.A.S. (1977) "The role of fungi in the origin of oleoresin deposits (Agaru) in the wood of Aquillaria agallocha (Roxb.)" Bano Biggyn Patrika 6(1), 16-26.


Gunasekera S.P., Kinghorn A.D., Cordell G.A., Farnsworth N.R. (1981) "Plant anticancer agents. XIX Constituents of Aquilaria malaccensis." J. Nat Prod. 44(5), 569-72.

Gutha S.R.D. & Karira B.G. (1976) "Chemical Pulps for writing and Printing Papers from Aquillaria agallocha" Indian Pulp Paper 30(6) 16-17 (April/May 1976).

Hai L.E., & Yahya A.Z. (1996) "The Growth Performance of Plantation Grown Aquilaria malaccensis in Peninsula Malaya." J. of Tropical Forest Science 8(4), 573-575.

Hai, L.E., Shyun C.Y. & Yussof A.M. (1999) "Early survival and growth in field trials of Aquilaria malaccensis (karas) and Azadirachta excelsa (sentang)" J. of Tropical Forest Science 11(4), 852-854.

Hambali G.G & Yatazawa M. (1993) "Observations on Aquilaria baillonii Pierre ex Lecomte" Biotrop Special Publicns: Taxonomy of tropical trees for genetic diversity studies Issue 51, pp83-4.

Hansen, E. (2000) "The hidden history of a scented wood." Saudi Aramco World XX, 2-13.

Harris T. (2004) "Agarwood Gem of Truth" Aromatherapy Journal Summer/Autumn 2004

Hartadi, I. (1997) "The hunt for gaharu. Gaharu, a rare commodity already on Appendix II of CITES is still collected in large quantity" Conservation in Indonesia 13(2) Industri Hidupan Liar (The Wildlife Industry) WWF Jakarta.

Hashimoto K., Nakahara S., Inoue T., Sumida Y. & Takahashi M. (1985) "A new chromone from agarwood and pyrolysis products of chromone derivatives." Chem Pharm Bull 33(11), 5088-91.

Hasnida, H. N., M.Y. Aziah, M. Salbiah, Z. Fadhilah, I. Haliza, and H. J. M. Azmy (2001). "Multiplication of shoots from in vitro germinated seedlings of Eurycoma longifolia and Aquilaria malaccensis." pp 269-276 in Tropical Forestry research in the new millennium: meeting the challenges. Proceedings of the International Conference on Forestry and Forest Products Research, 1-3 October 2001, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Hawksworth D.L., Gibson I.A.S (1976) "Phialophora parasitica" CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi & Bacteria 1976, No 504.

Hawksworth D.L., Gibson I.A.S. & Gams (1976) Transactions of the British Mycological Society 66, 427-431.

Hawksworth D.L. & Gibson I.A.S. (1977) "Phialophora parasitica" Desr Pathog Fungi Bact 51, 501-510.

Heathcock C.H. & Kelly T.B. (1968) "Total synthesis of nor-ketoagarofuran" Chem. Commun, 268.

Hearn L. (1971) In Ghostly Japan Rutland Vt., Tuttle, 1971. - now as paperback (2004): Capricorn Publishing 2004 ISBN: 0975397028.

Hidayat, R. (1996). Gaharu and Kampung Pengembara. Pancaroba. Musim. Panen.

Hoang T.C., Nguven D.T.L., "The Conservation and Use of Aquilaria crassna in Vietnam: a case study" Koskela J. (ed.), Appanah S. (ed.), Pedersen A.P.(ed.) Markopoulos MD in Proceedings of the SE Asian moving workshop on conservation, Management & Utilisation of Forest Resources, Thailand 25 Feb - 10 Mar 2001. FORSPA Publicn. 2002 No. 31, 155-157.

Hooper D. (1904) The Agri Ledger No 1.

Hou Ding (1964) "Notes on some Asiatic species of Aquilaria" Thymelaeaceae. Blumea 12(2), 285-288.

Hou, Ding (1960) "Aquilaria" pp6-16 in Flora Malesiana Series 1: 6(1-3) Thymelaeaceae ed. van Steenis C.G.C.J. (ed).

Huong D.T.L, Dat N.T. Van Minh C, Kang J.S., & Kim Y.H. (2002) "Monoxidase Inhibitors from Aquilaria agallocha" Natural Product Sciences 8,30-33 Korean Society of Pharamocognosy 1226-3907.

Hsu H-Y. (1996) Oriental Materica Medica rev edn 1996. p403.

Ishihara, M., Tsuneya T., Uneyama, K. (1991a) "Guaiene sequiterpenes from Agarwood" Phytochemistry 30(10), 3343-3347.

Ishihara, M., Tsuneya T., Suga M., Uneyama, K. (1991b) "Three sesquiterpenes from agarwood" Phytochemistry 30, 563-566.

Ishihara, M., Tsuneya T., Uneyama, K. (1993a) "Fragrant sesquiterpenes from Agarwood" Phytochemistry 33, 1147-1155.

Ishihara, M. Tsuneya, T. Uneyama, K. (1993b) "Components of the Volatile Concentrate of Agarwood." JOER 5(3), 283.

Ishihara, M., Tsuneya T., Uneyama, K. (1993c) "Components of the Agarwood Smoke on Heating" JOER 5(4), 419.

Ishihara, M. Masatsugu, Y. Uneyama, K. (1992) "Preparation of (-)-guaia-1(10),11-dien-15,2-olide and (-)-2à-hydroxy-guaia-1(10),11-dien-15-oic acid, fragrant sesquiterpenes in agarwood (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.)" Tetrahedron Letters 48(7), 47.

Ito M., Okimoto K-i., Yagura T., Honda G et al. (2005) "Induction of Sesquiterpenoid Production by Methyl Jasmonate in Aquilaria sinensis Cell Suspension Culture" JOER Mar/Aril 2005.

Itoh T., Tabata Y., Widjaja E., Mulyaningsih T., Parman, Wiriadinata H, Mandang Y. (2005) "Structure and Artificial Induction of Aloe wood" The Fifth Pacific Regional Wood Anatomy Conference. Abstracts from the Meeting of the IAWA Pacific Regional Group & IUFO S 5.01 (Wood Quality), Jakarta Indonesia 9-14 Sept. 2002. IAWA Journal 2002 23(4), 466-7.

Jain T.C. & Battacharrya (1959) S.C. Tetrahedron Letters 13.

Jalaluddin M (1977) "A useful pathological condition of wood" Economic Botany 31, 222-224.

Jantan, I. (1990). "Gaharu." Timber Digest 107: December.

Kadir AA, Ng LK & Ali ARM (1997) "Economic aspects of Aquilaria malaccensis and its conservation in Malaysia". In: Productive Functions of Forests. Proceedings of the XI World Forestry Congress 13-22 Oct. 1997. Antalya, Turkey.

Kalita, J., Bhattacharyya P. R. & Nath S. C. (2002) "Heortia vitessoides Moore (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) - A serious Pest of Agarwood plant (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.)" Geobios-Jodhphur 29(1), 13-15.

Kiet, le-C., Kessler PJA & Eurlings M. (2005) “A new species of Aquilaria from Vietnam.” Blumea 50(1), 135-141.

Abstract: A new species of Aquilaria is described from Vietnam and keys to the flowering & fruiting specimens of all species from this region are provided. DNA sequences of nrITS1-5.8S-IT2 region seem to confirm its status as a distinct species.

Kim, Y. C. Lee, E. H. Lee, Y. M. Kim, H. K. Song, B. K. Lee, E. J. & Kim, H. M. (1997) "Effect of the aqueous extract of Aquilaria agallocha stems on the immediate hypersensitivity reactions." Journal of Ethnopharmacology 58(1), 31-38.

Abstract: We investigated the effects of the aqueous extract of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. (Thymelaeaceae) on the immediate hypersensitivity reactions. The aqueous extract of Aquilaria agallocha stems showed inhibitory effects on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, anaphylaxis induced by compound 48/80, and histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). The morphological examination also clearly showed that the extract prevented the degranulation of RPMC in rats. The level of compound 48/80-induced intracellular cAMP in RPMC, when the extract was added, significantly increased about 8-fold at 10 s compared with that of basal cells. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of Aquilaria agallocha stems inhibits the immediate hypersensitivity reaction by inhibition of histamine release from mast cells.

997) "Antiallergic effect of Aquilarium lignum" Yakhak Hoeji 41(2), 255-259.

Konishi T., Konoshima T, Shimada Y, Kiyosawa S (2002) "Six new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones from Agarwood." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2002: 50(3), 419-422.

Konishi T., Iwagoe K., Sugimoto A., Kiyosawa S., Fujiwara Y & Shimada Y ((1991) "Studies on Agarwood (jinko). X. Structures of 2-(2-phenylethylcromone derivatives). Chem. & Pharm. Bulletin 39(1) 207-209.

Konishi T., Sugimoto A., Kiyosawa S. & Fujiwara Y. ((1992) ""Studies on Agarwood (jinko). XII. Structures of pentahydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives. Chem. & Pharm. Bulletin 40(3), 778-779.

Konishi Y. Kiyosawa S., Shimada Y. Miyahara K & Kiwasaka T. (1989) "The structure of AH16, a new tetrahydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone from agarwood" Chem. & Pharm. Bulletin 37(5), 1428-1430


Koopman & Diemont (2004-3) “North-South Policy Brief” for Programme International Cooperation. Online URL:

Krishnan S. (1997) "A Whiff of the Past" Indian Express Newspapers Bombay.

Kundu, M. & Kachari, J. (2000) "Desiccation sensitivity and recalcitrant behaviour of seeds of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb." Seed Science & Technology 28(3), 755-778 pub. International Seed Testing Association 2000.

Iu, K.C. (1983) The Cultivation of the "Incense Tree" (Aquilaria sinensis)" J of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 23, 247-249

Iwago K., Kodama S., Konishi T., Kiyosawa S., Fujiwara Y., Shimada Y (1987) "The Structure of AH15 & AH18, new bi- and tri-phenyethylchromones from agarwood" Chem. & Pharm. Bulletin 35(11), 4680-4682.

Iwago K., Kakae T., Konishi T., Kiyosawa S., Fujiwara Y., Shimada Y., Miyahara K., Kawasaki T. (1989) "Studies on the Agarwood (Jinko [Aquilaria]) VIII. Structures of bi-phenylchromone derivatives" Chem & Pharm Bulletin 37(1), 124-8 and notes.

LaFrankie J.V. (1994) "Population Dynamics of some tropical trees that yield non-timber forest products" Economic Botany 48(3), 301-309.

Lawrence B.M. (1985) "Progress in Essential Oils. Agarwood Oil." Perf & Flav 10 Jun/July 1985 pp 27-31.

Lawrence B.M. (1988) ibid 23, Sept/Oct 1988, 62-66.

Le Cong, K. (1996). The History of Agarwood in Viet Nam. Paper Presented at the International Conference of the Society of Ethnobiology, Nairobi, Kenya.

Le Nho (2002) "Wood of the Gods" Vietnam Investment Review November 2002.

Lee, M. W., Houghton, P. J., Simmonds, M. S. J., Leon, C., & Kite, G. C. "Authentication of the Chinese drug Agarwood" J Pharm and Pharmacology British Pharmaceutical Conference 2002 54(Supp), 191 Pharmaceutical Press 2002.

Li, Shizen (1596) Pan Ts'ao Kang Mu Vol 34.

Lidong L. & Shuyuan Q. "Triterpenoid from Chinese Eaglewood (Aquilaria sinensis)" Chinese Traditional & Herbal Drugs 2000 31(2), 89.

Lok E.H. & Yahyda A.Z. (1996) "The growth and performance of plantation grown Aquilaria malaccensis in Peninsula Malaya." J. Trop For. Sci 8, 573-575

Lok EH, Chang Y, Aziah MY (1999) "Early Survival & Growth in field trials of Aquilaria malaccensis (karas) and Azadirachta excelsa (sentang)." J. Trop Forest Sci 11(4), 852-854.

Mabberley D.J. (1998) The Plant Book (2nd edn) Cambridge Univ Press.

Maheshwari M.L., Jain T.C., Bates RB, Battacharyya S.C. (1963) "Terpenoids XLI. Structure and absolute confiuguration of -agarofuran, -agarofuran and dihydroagarofuran." Tetrahedron 19, 1079-1019.

Maheshwari M.L., Varma K.R., Bhattacharyya S.C. (1963a) Tripenoids XLVII Structure and absolute configuration of nor-ketoagarofuran, 4-hydrodihydroagarofuran, 3,4-didydroxydihydroagarofuran and conversion of beta- and alpha-agarofuran. Tetrahedron 19, 1519-1525.

Mahindru S.N, (1992) Indian Plant Perfumes pub Metropolitan, New Delhi p103-104.

Mai, R.R. & Suripatty, B.A. 1996. Pengaruh Wadah Penyimpanan dan Kelas Diamter Terhadap Pertumbuhan Stump Wikstroemia polyantha. Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan, Volume 1. No. 1 (1996). Balai Penelitian Kehutanan, Manokwari, Irian Jaya.

Mandang Y.I. & Wiyono B. "Anatomy of Eaglewood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.) and Several Related Species" The Fifth Pacific Regional Wood Anatomy Conference. Abstracts from the Meeting of the IAWA Pacific Regional Group & IUFO S 5.01 (Wood Quality), Jakarta Indonesia 9-14 Sept. 2002. IAWA Journal 2002 23(4), 471.

Y. Maruyama, I. Saiki, and S. Kadota (2003). "A survey on agarwood in Vietnam." Journal of Traditional Medicine 20(3), 124-131.

Meier M., Kohlenberg B., & Braun N. A. "Isolation of Anisyl Acetone from Agarwood Oil" (2003) JOER 15(1), 54-56.

MengLing H., Shuyan Q & Lanjuan H. (2005) “Rapid in vitro propagation of medicinally important Aquilaria agallocha.” J. of Zhejiang University Science 6B(8), 849-852.

Abstract: A. agallocha [A. malaccensis] can produce fragrant agarwood used for incense, traditional medicine & other products. An efficient plant regeneration system was established via organogenesis from shoots developed from seedlings of Aquilaria agallocha. Shoots generated many buds on MS medium supplemented with 1.3 micromol/L. BA (6-benzylaminopurine) in the first 7 weeks, and the buds elongated on MS medium with 1.3 micrmol/L. BA (benzyladenine) + 0.5 micromol/L. NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) in another 7 weeks, 2.3 shoots 2cm. In length per explant were obtained within 14 weeks. Plantlets were rooted on ½ MS medium after being immersed in 5 micromol/L. NAA for 48 h. 96.7% of the roots grew well 2 weeks later. All plantlets that survived acclimatisation grew well in the pots.

Miller L. & Miller B. (1995) Ayerveda & Aromatherapy Lotus Press Twin Lakes WI USA.

Mitra J. & Gogol P. (2001) "Fungi Associated with the diseased wood (agarwood/agaru) of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. (Fam. Thymelaeaceae) grown in Assam. Proceedings of Seminar on Scope & Dimension of Agar Plantation in NE region. Edits M. Ahmed, P. Gogol & G.U. Ahmed pp 61-69, AATMA, Hojai, India. 


Mohd PM., Fui L., Fui L.H., (2002) "Importance of Gaharu Harvesting to the Household Economy" In Chang Y. (ed.), Mohtar M. (ed.) Subramaniam V. (ed.) Yunos N.M. Towards Modernisation of Research & Technology in Herbal Industries - Proceedings of the Seminar on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants 24-25 July 2001 2002 204-209 publ. FRIM Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Momberg F., Jessup T., & Puri R. (1997) "Gaharu collecting in the Kayan Mentarang Nature Reserve; problems and prospects for sustainable community-based forest management in East Kalimantan" Indonesia WWF Publications Jakarta.

Moore M. & Rompies K. "The Money Tree" The Sydney Morning Herald Jan 5th 2005.

Morita K. The Book of Incense Kodansha International 1992.

Mulyaningsih T. & Sumarjan (2002) "Formation of Interxylary Phloem & Aromatic Resin in Gyrinops vesteegii (Thymelaeceae)" The Fifth Pacific Regional Wood Anatomy Conference.Abstracts from the Meeting of the IAWA Pacific Regional Group & IUFO S 5.01 (Wood Quality), Jakarta Indonesia 9-14 Sept. 2002. IAWA Journal 2002 23(4), 472-3.

Nabin S., Nath S. C., Saikia N. & Dutta S. (2000) "Foliar Micromorphological Characters of Few Taxa of the genus Aquilaria Lamk. growing in North-east India" Advances In Plant Sciences 13(2), 551-558.

Näf R., Velluz A., Busset N., Gaudin, J.-M. (1992) "New Nor-sesquiterpenoids with 10-epi-Eudesmane Skeleton from Agarwood (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.)" Flav & Frag J. 7(6), 295-298.

Näf R., Valluz A., Thommen W & Baruchli R. (1993) "New Compounds Identified in Agarwood (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.)" Flav. & Frag J. 8(6), 307 -313.

Abstract: Four new compounds have been isolated from agarwood oil (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) and their structures confirmed by synthesis: (1R,2R,6S,9R)-6,10,10-trimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[,6]dodecane-2-spiro-2'-oxirane (epoxy-beta-agarofuran, (1S,2S,6S,9R)-6,10,10-trimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[]dodecane-2-carbaldehyde, (E)-8,10-undecadien-2-one and 2,t-3-dimethyl-r-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1-cyclohexanone (absolute configuration unknown). Several of their diastereoisomers, such as (1R,2S,6S,9R)-6,10,10-trimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[]dodecane-2-spiro-2'-oxirane, (1S,2R,6S,9R)-6,10,10-trimethyl-11-oxatricyclo[,6]dodecane-2-carbaldehyde, (Z)-8,10-undecadien-2-one and racemic 2,c-3-dimethyl-r-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1-cyclohexanone were also synthesised and fully characterised. The 13C NMR data of agarospirol published earlier are corrected. The assignments are fully supported by 1D-INADEQUATE experiments.

Näf R., Velluz A., Brauchli & Thommen W (1995) Agarwood oil (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.). Its composition and eight new valencane-, eremophilane-, vetispirane- derivatives. Flav. Frag J. 10, 147-152 (1995).

Abstract: The profile of the total extract of agarwood oil (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) is discussed and eight new sesquiterpenoids are presented: two with the eremophilane-skeleton (rel-(2R,8S,8aR)-2-(1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-8,8adimethyl-2-naphthyl)-prop2-en-1-ol (eremophila-9,11(13)-dien-12-ol) and rel-(3R,7R,9R,10S)-9,10-dimethyl-6-methylene-4-oxatricyclo[,7]tridec-1-ene, one with the valencane skeleton (rel-(2R,8S,8aR)-2-(1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-8,8a-dimethyl-2-naphthyl)-propan-2-ol (valenca-1(10),8-dien-11-ol) and four with the vetispirane skeleton (rel-(5R,10R-)-(2-isopropylidene-10-methylspiro[4,5]dec-6-ene-6-carbaldehyde (vetaspira-2(11),6-dien-14-al), rel-(5R,m7R,10R)-2-isopropylidene-10-methyl-6-methylene-spiro[4.5]decan-7-ol (vetaspira-2(11),6(14)-dien-7-ol, rel-(1r,2R)-9-isopropyl-2-methyl-8-oxatricyclo[,6]doddec-5-ene, (2,14-epoxy-vetispir-6-ene) and rel-(1R,2R)-(9-isopropyl-2-methyl-8-oxatricyclo[,6]dodeca-4,6-diene (2,14-epoxy-vetaspira-6(14),7-diene. 2-(1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-8,8a-dimethyl-2-naphthyl)-propanal (valenc- or eremophil-9-en-12-al) is tentatively identified.

Nagashini T, Yamagata E. et al. (1983) "New sesquiterpenoids from Agarwood" Paper presented at the IXth Intern Essential Oil Congress, Singapore.

Nakanishi T, Yamagata E. et al. (1984) "Three fragrant sesquiterpenes of agarwood" Phytochemistry 23(9), 2066-2067.

Nakanishi T., Yamagata E., Yoneda A., Muira I., & Mori H. (1983) "Jinkoh-eremol and jinkohol II - 2 new sesquiterpene alcohols from Agarwood" J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 10(3) 601-604.

Nakanishi T., Yamagata E., Yoneda K., & Muira I. (1981) "Jinkohol a prezizaene sesquiterpene alcohol from Agarwood Aquilaria sp." Phytochem 20(7), 1597-1600.

Natarajan R.K. & Purushothaman K.K. (1991) Capt. Srinavasa Murti Drug Research Institute (Ayurveda) Arumbakkam, Madras-600 029): "Alkaloids from Agaru" 33rd Indian Pharmaceutical Congress, Jaipur, India Dec 20-22 1981.

Nath, S. C. Kalita, J. & Saikia, N. (1999) "Germination studies on the seeds of Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. - A potential crop for fragrance industry" Indian Perfumer 43(3), 159-163 Essential Oil Assocn of India.

Newton A.C. & Soeharto T. (2001) "CITES and the conservation of tree species: The case of Aquilaria in Indonesia" International Forestry Review 3(1), 27-33.

Ng L.T., Chang Y.S. & Azizol L.K. (1997) "A review on agar (gaharu) producing Aquilaria species" J. Tropical Forest Products 2(2), 272-285.


Nguyen DTL., Nguyen M.C. & Nguyen V.A. (2001) "Preliminary Study of Aquilaria crassna" Newsletter Project on Handling and Storage of Recalcitrant and Intermediate Tropical Forest Tree seeds" 2001 No. 9, 22-3.

Nobuchi T. & Somkid Siripacanadilok (1991) "Preliminary Observation of Aquliaria crassna Wood Associated with the Formation of Aloeswood Bult. Kyoto Univ. Forests No 63, 226-235.

Norwati M. (2001) "Karas - an Endangered Species: a Genetic Study" FRIM In Focus 2001 December issue, 4-5.

Okugawa H., Ueda R., Matsumoto K., Kawanishi, K. & Kato, A. (1996) "Effect of Jinkoh-eremol and Agarospirol from Agarwood on the Central Nervous System in Mice" Planta Medica 62(1), 2-6.

Abstract: Agarwood (Jinkoh in Japanese) one of the Oriental medicines, is used as a sedative. The benzene extract of this medicine showed a prolonged effect on hexobarbital-induced sleeping time, and hypothermic effects in terms of rectal temperature, a suppressive effect on acetic acid writhing, and a reduction in spontaneous motility in mice. By repeated fractionation, oral administration in mice, and pharmacological screening, the active principles, jinkoh-eremol and agarospirol, were obtained from the benzene extract. They also gave positive effects on the central nervous system by peritoneal and intracerebroventricular administration. They decreased both methamphetamine- and apomorphine- induced spontaneous motility. The level of homovanillic acid in the brain was increased by them, while the levels of monoaminesand other metabolites were unchanged. Similar results wete seen in chlorpromazine-administered mice. Therefore, jinko-eremol and agarospirol can be considered to be neuroleptic.

Okugawa H., Ueda R., Matsumoto K., Kawanishi K. & Kato, A. (1993) "Effect of Agarwood on the Central Nervous System in Mice" Planta Medica 59(1), 32-6.

Abstract: Agarwood (Jinkoh in Japanese) is an Oriental medicine for use as a sedative. Neuropharmaclolgical studies have been conducted with the extracts of petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and water from agarwood (Aquilaria sp. probably A. malaccensis Benth.) in mice. The benzene extract showed a reducing effect in spontaneous motility, a prolonging effect on hexobarbiturate-induced sleeping time, a hypothermic effect in terms of rectal temperature, and a suppressive effect on acetic-acid writhing by oral administration. Fr. 1 of the three fractions which were obtained by benzene extract by column chromatography was found to produce more positive effects on these neuropharmalogical tests than the original benzene extract. These facts suggest that benzene extractable compounds of agarwood possess potent central nervous system depressant activities.

Okugawa H., Uneda R., Matsumoto K., Kawanishi K. & Kato K. (2000) "Effects of Sesquiterpenoids from Oriental Incenses on acetic-acid induced writhing and D2 and 5-HT2A receptors in Rat Brain" Phytomedicine 7(5), 417-422.

Okukawa H., Kawanishi K. & Kato A. (2000) "Effects of Sequiterpenoids from Oriental Incenses on Sedative & Analgesic Action" Aroma Research 1(1), 34-38.

Oyen LPA & Nguyen XD (1999) (eds.) Plant resources of SE Asia 19: Essential oil plants eds Backhuys Pubs Leiden 1999. PROSEA Bogor Sept (2003).

Panikar S.K. & Dhavlikar R.S. (1975) "Microbial transformation of terpenoids: a microbial preparation of dihydro- -agarofuran from valencene" Chem. Ind. 432-433.

Pakinar S.K. & C.G. Naik (1975) "Stereocemistry of dihydroagarofurans and evidence in support of the structure of 4,11-epoxy-cis-eudesmane" Tet. Letters 15, 1293-1294.

Pant P. & Rastogi R.P. (1980) "Agarol, a new sesquiterpene from Aquilaria agallocha" Phytochemistry 19(8), 1869-1870.

Paoli, G. D., Leighton M., Peart D.R. & Samsoedin I. (1994) "Economic ecology of gaharu (Aquilaria malaccensis) in Gunung Palung National Park: valuation of extraction and ecology of the residual population." Unpublished manuscript.

Paoli, G. D., Peart D. R., Leighton M., and Samsoedin I. (2001) "An ecological and economic assessment of the non-timber forest product gaharu wood in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia". Conservation Biology 15(6),1721-1732.

Parry EJ. (1925) Parry's Cyclopaedia of Perfumery: A Handbook Vol 1 A-L. pub J & A. Churchill London.

Pereira, I. (1995). Notes On: Pepper (Piper nigrum), Mai Kessina (The Eagle Wood Tree), and Cardamom (Elettaria cardamum), NDCP\DDSMS\LAO\89\550, Lao PDR.

Pojanagaroon S, Kaewrak "Mechanical Methods to Stimulate Aloeswod Formation in Aquliaria crassna (Kritsana) trees." ISHS Acta Horticulturae 676: III WOCMAP Congress on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants - Vol 2 Cultivation, Conservation and Sustainable Use of Aromatic Plants eds A. Jatisatienr, T. Paratasilpin, S. Elliott, V. Anusarnsunthorn, D. Wedge, L.E. Craker, Z.E. Gardner publ. ISHS Leuven, Belgium ISBN 9066054980

Abstract: Various mechanical injury methods were tested to induce formation of aloes wood in 4-year-old Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex H.Lec. (kritsana) trees grown at Phurua Highland Agricultural Experiment Station, Phurua, Loei (950 m asl, 17°17'N 101°24'E) during February 2001 to October 2002. A sequential change in the wood coloration was observed around injury sites. One month after wounding a pale discoloration occurred, followed by a darker yellow-brown discoloration after 3 months, becoming dark brown within 8-10 months and changing to black within 20 months with accompanied on burning scent. Wood block samples collected from live tree at 10, 15 and 20 months after wounding were compared among the different mechanical treatments. The results indicated that holes made with screws, wounds inflicted with chisels and bark removal with hatchets on the trunk gave dark yellow-brown to dark discoloration near injury (5-10 mm from the cut end), while nails hammered into the trunk gave dark brown to black occurring by the interaction between ferric oxide and fibers, where as hammers beated on the trunk gave only little discoloration. The larger the objects used to wound the trunk of kritsana trees, the wider the width of the discoloration ring. The rate of the formation of the discoloration ring around the wound in the rainy season (16-20 months after wounding) was 3 times higher than in the dry season (11-15 months after wounding), influenced by seasonal factors. Most treatments gave no specific aromatic kritsana scent by burning the wood samples, except only 4 treatments gave pale scent which were the holes made with screws (1.27 cm and 1.11 cm in diameter) and wounds inflicted with narrow (1 cm) and wide (2.54 cm) chisels. Moreover, the wood samples gave very low percentage yields of essential oil using a hydro-distillation method. In conclusion, mechanical injury can be used for the formation of aloes wood in kritsana trees, and the most suitable method was the holes made with screws (1.27 cm in diameter) which gave the widest discoloration ring and pale specific aromatic kritsana scent by burning.




Pojangaroon S. & Kaewrak C. (2005) “Mechanical methods to stimulate aloes-wood formation in Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex H.Lec (Kritsana) trees.” Acta Horticulturae 676, 161-166.




Abstract: The efficacy of mechanical methods of stimulating wood formation in A. crassna trees was determined in a field experiment conducted in Thailand between Feb 2001 to Oct 2002. The treatment comprised wounding using narrow (T1) and wide (T2) chisels making holes using screws that are 0.40 (T3), 0.55 (T4), 1.11 (T5, and 1.27 cm. In diameter(T6); bark removal using hatchets (T7); hammering nails that are 2.54 (T8), 5.08 (T9), 7.62 (T10), 10.16 (T 11) and 12.70 cm. long (T12); and hammer beating the trunk (T13). Holes made by screws, wounds inflicted by chisels and bark removal caused a dark yellow-brown discolouration of the trunk near the injury, whereas hammering nails into the trunk caused a dark brown-black discolouration. The larger the objects used to wound the trunk, the wider the width of the discolouration rings. The rate of discolouration ring formation was 3 times higher during the rainy season compared to the dry season. Then most suitable method for inducing formation of aloes wood was through the use of 1.27 cm. wide screws which gave the widest discolouration ring and pale specific aromatic kritsana scent by burning. Wood samples gave very low essential oil yield.


Puzari K.C. & Saikia (2001) "Investigation on the Formation & Development of agaru in Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. Proceedings of Seminar on Scope & Dimension of Agar Plantation in NE region. Edits M. Ahmed, P. Gogol & G.U. Ahmed pp 61-69, AATMA, Hojai, India. 


Pybus D. Kodo - The Way of Incense. Speaking Tree Books.

Qi, S.-Y. "Aquilaria Species: In Vitro Culture and the Production of Eaglewood (Agarwood) (1995)" Biotechnology in Agriculture & Forestry - Medical and Aromatic Plants VIII 33, 36-46.

Qi, S., Lin L. & Ye Q. (1998) " Benzylacetone in Agarwood and Its Biotransformation by Melanotus flavolivens" Chin. J. of Biotech. -Chin Edn- 14(4), 464-467.

Qi Shu-Yuan, Lu Bi-Yau, Zhu Liang-Feng & Li Bao-Ling "Formation of oxo-agarospirol in Aquliaria sinensis" Plant. Phys. Commun. 28, 336-339.

Qui SY, & Sethi KL (1989) "Accumulation of Secondary Metabolites in Cell Suspension Culture of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. (Thymelaeaceae). In Bhattacharyya SC (ed.) Sen N (ed.) Proceedings of the 11th Internat Congress on Essential Oils, Fragr & Flavours New Delhi India 12-16 Nov. 1989 Vol 3, 1-4.

Qui Shu-Yuan (1995) "Aquilaria species: in vitrio culture and the production of eaglewood (agarwood)" in Bajaj YPS Biotechno

Rahman MA & Basak AC “Agar production in agar trees by artificial inoculation and wounding” Bano Bigan Patrika Jan-July 1980, 9(1&2) 97-93. 

Abstract: Experiments to determine the role of wounding and fungal infection in the formation of the aromatic base, agar, in the wood of the Agar tree (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) were conducted. Inoculation without wounding using three fungal isolates from agar, as well as, wounding without inoculant, produced colour changes and oleoresin deposits in the host characteristic of agar. It was inferred that formation of agar did not depend on the activity of a special fungus, as was previously believed, but is a general reaction of the host to injury or invasion. The possibility of the development of techniques for the commercial induction of agar is also discussed. 

Research Reports of the American Institute of Unani Medicine, Oxford NY, Christi Order, 1994.

Revolutionary Health Committee of Hunan Province (1978) A Barefoot Doctors Manual rev. & enlarged edn. pub. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1978.

Rypacek V., Navratilova Z. (1971) “Growth of Fungi in Wood” Drevarasky Vyskum 16 (1/2), 115-22


Sadgopal & Varma B.S. (1952) “Agar oil from the wood of Aquilaria agallocha Roxburgh” SPC 25, 169-174.


Sadgopal (1960) “Explanatory studies in the development of essential oils and their constituents in Aromatic Plants. Part 1: Oil of Agarwood.” SPC 33, 41-46.


Shankaranarayana K.H., Parthasarathi K. & Rai S.N. (1986) “HAWS & HEBS – two new essential oils from spent Agarwood and Bursera Husk” Perf. & Flav. 11. Oct/Nov 1986 p93-95.


Shaw K. (1966) “Development issues: tropical forests and Aromatic plants as Non-Timber Forest Products” from lecture notes 2.8.1996 at Purdue Univ, Indiana, Training Program on Essential  Oils.


Schun Y, Cordell GA. (1985) “Studies in the Thymelaeaceae. III. Constituents of Gyrinops walla.” J Nat Prod. 1985 48(4), 684-5.


Shyun, Chang Yu (1997) “Gaharu. FRIM In Focus” The Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Jan 1997.


Sidiyasa K. et al. (1986) [“Exploration and study of regeneration of ‘gaharu’ producing substances in Kintal forest region, South Kalimantan”]. Bulletin Penelitian Hutan 474, 59-66.


Soehartono T. & Newton A.C. (2000) “Conservation & Sustainable Use of tropical trees in the genus Aquilaria. I Status and Use in Indonesia.” Biological Conservation 96 (2000) 83-94.


Soehartono T. & Newton A.C. (2001) “Conservation & Sustainable Use of tropical trees in the genus Aquilaria. II The impact of gaharu harvesting in Indonesia." Biological Conservation 97(1) 29-41.


Soehartono T. & Newton A.C. (2001) “CITES and the conservation of tree species: the case of Aquilaria in Indonesia Internat Forestry Review 3(1), 27-33. Commonwealth Forestry Assocn.


Soehartono, T. Newton, A. C. (2001) “Reproductive ecology of Aquilaria spp. in Indonesia Forest Ecology & Management 152(1-3), 59-71.


Soehartono, T. Newton & A. C. Mardiastuti A. (2002) “Factors influencing the survival and growth of Aquilaria malaccensis seedlings in Indonesia  Journal of Tropical Forest Science 14(3), 364-378 Forest Research Institute Malaysia.


Soehartono, T. Newton & A. C (2002) “The Gaharu Trade in Indonesia: Is it Sustainable?” Economic Botany 56(3) pp271-284.

Abstract: When subjected to a fungal attack, Aquilaria spp. (Thymelaeaceae) produce a fragrant resin that is traded internationally as gaharu. Socioeconomic aspects of the gaharu trade were investigated via interviews with collectors and local and international traders. In addition, the extent of local and international trade was evaluated by reference to official government statistics. Evidence that gaharu resources are declining was obtained from the personal experience of gaharu collectors, and official statistics relating to the declining number of gaharu export companies in operation. Traders also reported that the main source of gaharu has recently switched from Sumatra and Kalimantan to sources in eastern Indonesia (Maluku and Irian Jaya), a finding supported by official statistics. Disparities recorded between official figures for the price and volume of gaharu in local and international trade, supported by comments made by export traders, indicate that a high proportion of the more valuable, high-grade gaharu is traded illegally by personal transaction. Interviews with gaharu collectors indicated that traditional approaches to harvesting are declining, as more nonlocal people become involved in collection, leading to more intensive harvesting practices. Together, these findings suggest that the current Indonesian trade in gaharu is not sustainable.


Soehartono T. & Mardiastuti A. (2002) "CITES Implementation in Indonesia". Nagao International Experimental Foundation.


Soehartono T. (2003) “Sustainable Trade in Agarwood and Ramin in Indonesia” Paper presented at the Workshop on National Strategy and Trade of Trees in Indonesia. Indonesian Institute of Sciences – Centre for Biological Research. Bogor Sept 2003. 


Subeham., Junya U., Fujino H., Attamimi F., Kadota S (2005) “A field survey of agarwood in Indonesia” J of Trad. Medicines 22(4), 244-251.

Abstract: Agarwood is one of the most valuable non-timber forest products harvested  from the tropical forests in S.E. Asia. We have surveyed agarwood in Indonesia which is performed through interviewed collectors, businessmen, and government officers (Ministry of Forestry, East Kalimentan, Indonesia) and also surveyed the wild agarwood and its cultivation in South Sulawesi & East Kalimantan Provinces. High economic value is one of the reasons for collecting agarwood to increase family income of the peoples living by the forest. Each surveyed area has a different classification and price of each grade, according to their experience by observing the darkness, smell, oily and density of agarwood. Over exploitation of the natural resource makes the stock becoming exhausted. It has been an initiative for the conserving the plant of source agarwood by cultivation. Fungi, the known stimulators in formation of agarwood, are used in the cultivation of agarwood. Fusarium laseritum is the faster fungus infecting Aquilaria sp. tree, and can be isolated and inoculated easily into medium. Thus, this fungus is inoculated into holes in the trunk. One year after inoculation obtained agarwood with the lowest grade. This cultivation program was supported by the Indonesian government through research & training to the collector who cultivate agarwood.


Suvitayavat W., Tunglert S., Thirawarapan S.S., Kitpati C. & Bunyapraphatsara N. (2005) “Actions of Ya-hom, a herbal drug combination, on isolated rat aortic ring and atrial contractions.” Phytomedicine 12(8), 561-569.

Abstract: The effect of the popular Thai medicine Ya-hom on cardiovascular function was studied in isolated rat aortic ring and atrium by comparison with norepinephrine (NE). Ya-hom contains extracts of Agastache rugosa, Acorus gramineus, Lysimachia foenum-graecum, Citrus nobilis, Magnolia officinalis, Cinnamomum cassia (C. aromaticum), Asarum sieboldii, Ligusticum wallichii, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzygium aromaticum), Saussurea lappa, Aquillaria agallocha, Atractylis ovata & Angelica anomala. Water extraction of ya-hom at 0.83, 1.67, 8.33, & 16.67mg/ml stimulated aortic ring contraction dose-dependently. The maximum concentration, at 16.67 mg/ml was ~14% that of NE. This stimulatory effect of Ya-hom was inhibited partially by phentolamine, which indicated that the effect of Ya-hom was partly dependent on the alpha receptor, similar to NE. Administration of Ya-hom with NR decreased the force of aortic ring contraction compared to the effect of NE alone, indicating the Ya-hom may have a partial alpha-agonist activity. Ya-hom at concentrations of 1.67, 8.33 & 16.67 mg/ml showed a dose-dependent positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effects. Ya-hom increased the force of isolated atrial contraction with slow onset and prolonged action. In contract to NE which acted on beta 1 reeceptor, causing positive inotrophic & negative chromotrophic effects, propanolol did not alter the effect of Ya-hom on the atrial contraction. This shows the action of Ya-hom on atrial contraction does not involve the beta-receptor. This study demonstrated that the selected Ya-hom preparation increased vascular smooth muscle contraction, increase the force, but decreased the rate of atrial contraction.  


Suvitayavat W., Tunglert S., Thirawarapan S.S., & Bunyapraphatsara N. (2005) “Effects of Ya-hom on blood pressure in rats.” J. of Ethnopharmacology 97(3), 503-508.

Abstract: The effects of Ya-hom a traditional Thai formulation, on blood pressure were evaluated to verify its use for fainting treatment. Ya-hom has several recipes which are composed of different herbal plants in varying ratio. We have selected the most popular commercial preparation to determine the effect on blood pressure in rats. The water extract of Ya-hom at doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8g/Kg initially transiently decreased pressure and over time, increased blood pressure. The duration of the Ya-hom effect of decreasing & increasing blood pressure was dose dependent. Phentolamine attenuated the blood pressure decreasing effect but did not affect the blood pressure increasing effect of Ya-hom. Ya-hom was previously shown to increase aortic ring contraction which was partially inhibited by phentolamine, and increased atrial contraction. It is possible that phentolamine inhibits the effect of Ya-hom on vascular smooth muscle contraction resulting in a prominent positive inotropic effect. This may be the same reason that phentolamine does influence the effect of Ya-hom on increasing the blood pressure. The dominant effect of Ya-hom on increasing the blood pressure supports the use of Ya-hom for the treatment of fainting. 


Tamuli P., Bhuyan D., Borah P., Nath SC (1999) “Seed-bourne fungi of Agarwood plant” Indian Phytopathology 52(3), 312.

Tamuli P., Boruah P., Nath S. & Leclercq P. (2005) "Essential oil of Eaglewood Tree: a product of pathogenesis." J. Essen. Oil. Res. 17, 601-604.


Tamuli P, Boruah P, Nath SC, Bhuyan D & Samanta R (2000a) “Mycofloral study on rhizosphere of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.” Assam Science Society Vol 1.


Tamuli P, Boruah P, Nath SC, & Samanta R (2000) “Fungi from diseased agarwood tree (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.): two new records” in Advances in Forestry Research 2000, XXII ed. Ram Parkash p182-189.

Abstract: “Agar is known as the results of natural infection, found as irregular patches in trunks of the standing tree of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb., which are of great economic importance. Two fungi, viz., Fusarium oxysporum Schlect. and Chaetonium globosum Kunze. were isolated for the first time from the diseased wood of A. agallocha. These two fungi colonised wood blocks of A. agallocha when these were inoculated artificially.  


Tamuli P., Boruah P. (2002) “Changes in free Amino acids in Agarwood plant under Pathological conditionGeobios - Jodhpur 29(4), 241-243.


Tamuli P., Boruah P. (2002) “Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) Assocaition of Agarwood tree in Jorhat District of the Brahmatputra Valley.”  Indian Forester 128(9), 991-994 Forest Research Institute.


Tamuli P., Boruah P. & Nath S.C. (2005) "Essential Oil of Eaglewood Tree: a Product of Pathogenisis" J. Essent Oil. Res 17, 601-604

Abstract: The essential oil of the Eaglewood tree (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) has been considered to be a pathological product. An investigation was carried out to study the difference in composition of oils obtained from healthy, naturally infected and artifically inoculated eaglewood using GC and GC/MS analyses. This investigation shows a marked difference in the oil compositions among the treatments witrh regards to their quality. Valerianol (3.0%) and tetradecanoic acid (7.1%) contents were recorded higher in the oils of naturally infected plants than in that of healthy ones (0.1% and 6.9% respectively). Pentedecanoic acid was totally absent in the oils of healthy (..plants/trees?), whereas it was found in a greater amount (6.8%) in the oil of naturally infected plants. In contrast dodecanoic acid (3.1%), pentedecanoic acid (6.2%), hexadecanoic acid (31.5%) and octadecanoic acid were found in the oils of healthy plants, while the oils obtained from naturally infected plants contained lower amounts of these components (2.3%, 4.8%, 20.0% and 1.0% respectively). The oils obtained from the inoculated plants showed almost similar distribution of the components with healthy plants.   



Thomas A.F. & Ozianne M. (1976) “The stereochemistry of the dihydroagofurans” Tet. Lett. 20, 1717-1718.


Uchibayashi M. (2002) [“Eaglewood and eagle”] Yakushigaku Zasshi 37(1), 104-106.

Abstract: The etymology of eaglewood (chen xiang) and its related terms with particular reference to its relation to eagle (aquilaria) is discussed. It is pointed out that this fragrant wood has nothing to do with eagle. A Portuguese aguila transcribed from akil (Malay, the name of wood), perhaps underwent phonetic traction to aguia (Portuguese, eagle) in the process of being translated into French. Thus pau d'aguila (Portuguese) was transformed to bois d'aigle (French, aigle=eagle), which led to eagle-wood (English) and Adlerholz (German).


Universitas Nusa Cendana (1996). Prospek Pengusahaan Gaharu di Nusa Tenggara Timur: Studi


Varma K.R,, Maheshwari M.L. & Bhattacharyya S.C. (1965) “Terpenoids LXII. The constitution of agarospirol, a sesquiterpenoid with a new skeleton. Tetrahedron 21, 115-138.


Verma V.P.S. (1977) “Trials of herbicides for inducing formation of agarwood in Aquilaria agollocha Roxb.” Indian Perfumer XXI(3),151-3.

Abstract: The results of trials with auxin herbicides viz., 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and MCPA on the formation and development of agarwood in 15 year old Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. trees growing in Sissagar Forest Division of Assam are given. The effect of mechanical injury was also observed. The indicative trials reported in the paper have shown the said herbicides and the mechanical injury do not appear to have induced the formation of agarwood in Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. till one year after the treatment.


Venkataramanan M.N., Borthakur & Singh H.D. (1985) "Occurrence of Endotrophic myccorhizzal fungus in agarwood plant Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. Current Sci 54, 928


Whitmore T.C. (ed) (1973) Tree Flora of Malaysia Longman Group, London.


Wiriadinata H. (1995) Gaharu, Aquilaria spp. Perkembangandan pemanfaatan berkelanjutan. Lokakarya pengusahaan hasil hutan non kayu Indonesia. Surabaya, 31 Juli-1 Agustus 1995.


Wollenberg EK “Incentives for Collecting Gaharu (Fungal-Infected Wood of Aquilaria spp.; Thymelaceae) in East Kalimantan Economic Botany 55(3),444-456.


Xu J-F., Zhu L-F., Lu B-Y. & Liu C-T. (1988) “Study on chemical constituents of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour) Gilg. Zhiwu Xuebo 30, 635-638.


Yagura T., Ito M., Kiuchi F., Honda G., Shimada Y. (2003) “Four new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives from the withered wood of Aquilaria sinensis.Chem Pharm Bull  51(5), 560-564.

Abstract: Four new chromone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone, 6-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)chromone, 8-chloro-2-(2-phenylethyl)-5,6,7-trihydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrochromone, 6,7-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrochromone were isolated from the methanol extract of withered wood of Aquilaria sinensis, together with seven known constituents of agarwood.


Yagura T., Shibayama N ., Ito M., Kiuchi F. & Honda G. (2005) “Three novel diepoxy tetrahydrochromones from agarwood artificially wounded by intentional wounding” Tetrahedron Letters 46(25), 4395-4398.

Abstract: Three novel diepoxy tetrahydrochromones, oxidoagarochromones A (1), B(2) & C(3) were isolated from agarwood artificially produced by intentional wounding of A. crassna. Inductive production of these three compounds was also confirmed at the early stage of wounding in A. sinensis and A. crassna. These diepoxy tetrahydrochromones would play an important role in the understanding the biuosynthesis of chromone derivatives in agarwood.


Yamada K. (1979) Koryo Hakubuttan Jiten [Encyclopaedia of Incense] Dohosba.


Yamada I. (1995) “Aloeswood Forest and the maritime World”. South East Asian Studies 33(3), 181-186. 


Yamamoto Koryo KK Incense containing chromone derivatives isolated from Aquilaria agalloca Patent: Japan Kokari Tokkyo Koho JP84106414; JP 59106414 Date: 840620 Application: JP82217299 (821210).


Yamanaka, Akihiko (1981) “Jinko, the scented wood of Aquilaria aquallocha Roxb.” Koryo 134, 61-4.


Yance (2001)I., Mandang & Bambang Wityono  “Anatomy of Eaglewood (Aquilaria malaccensis) and several related species” Poster at 5th Pacific Regional Wood Anatomy Conference (Yogyakarta). p471


Yang J.S. & Chen Y.W. (1983) “[Studies on the constituents of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. I. Isolation and structure elucidation of two new sesquiterpenes, baimuxinic acid and baimuxinal] Yao Xue Xue Bao 18(3),191-8.


Yang J.S., Chen Y.W. (1986) “[Studies on the chemical constituents of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. II. Isolation and structure of baimuxinol and dehydrobaimuxinol]” Yao Xue Xue Bao 21(7),516-20.


Yang J.S., Wang Y.L., Su Y.L., He C.H., Zheng Q.T., Yang J. (1989) [Studies on the chemical constituents of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour) Gilg. III. Elucidation of the structure of isobaimuxinol and isolation and identification of the constituents of lower boiling fraction of the volatile oil] Yao Xue Xue Bao. 24(4), 264-8.

Abstract: A new sesquiterpenoid, named isobaimuxinol, C15H26O2, mp 73-75 degrees C, [a]D12-68(0) (c 0.10, CHCl3), was isolated from the volatile oil of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour), Gilg. (Thymeleaceae). Based on spectral (IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR as well as MS) analysis its structure was identified as isobaimuxinol. The relative stereochemistry of isobaimuxinol was determined by X-ray crystallograhy. In addition, four known compounds, benzylacetone, p-methoxybenzylacetone, anisic acid and beta-agarofuran were isolated and identified from the lower boiling fraction of the volatile oil of this plant. These compounds were obtained for the first time from this plant.


Yang J.S., Wang Y.L., Su Y.L. (1989) “[Studies on the chemical constituents of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. IV. Isolation and characterization of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives]” Yao Xue Xue Bao 24(9):678-83.

Abstract: Six chromone derivatives were isolated from the ether soluble fraction of the alcoholic extract of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. (Thymeleaceae) by silica gel chromatography. On the basis of spectrometric data (UV, IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR as well as MS) and chemical synthesis one of them was found to be a new chromone, 6-hydroxy-2-[2-(4'-methoxylphenyl)ethyl] chromone(VI) and the other five known chromones are 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone(I), 6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (II), 6.7-dimethoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone(III), 6-methoxy-2[2-(3'-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone(IV) and 6-hydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone(V). These compounds were obtained for the first time from this plant.


Yang J.S., Wang Y.L., Su Y.L. (1990) “[Studies on the chemical constituents of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. V. Isolation and characterization of three 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone derivatives]” Yao Xue Xue Bao 25(3),186-90.

Abstract: Three 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone derivatives were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the alcoholic extract of Aquilaria sinensis (Lous.) Gilg. (Thymeleaceae) by silica gel chromatography. Based on spectral data (UV, IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and MS) two of them are new compounds and their structures were identified as 5,8-dihydroxy-2-(2-p-methoxyphenylethyl) chromone (2) and 6,7-dimethoxy-2-(2-p-methoxyphenylethyl) chromone (3). The known compound isolated for the first time from this plant, was identified as 5,8-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromone (1).



Yip, J.K.L & Lai, PCC (2003) “The Nationally Rare and Endangered Plant, Aquilaria sinensis: its Status in Hong Kong” – see


Yoneda K., Yamagata E., Nakanishi T., Nagashima T., Kawasaki I., Yoshida T., Mo Yoneda K. (1984) “Sesquiterpenoids in Two Different kinds of Agarwood" Phytochem 23(9), 2068-2069.

Abstract: Sesquiterpenoids of an agarwood originating from Aquilaria agallocha and the other kind of agarwood (Aquilaria sp. probably A. malaccensis) were investigated by a combination of GLC and GC/MS. The differences in sesquiterpene composition between the two kinds of agarwood are discussed.”


Yoshii E., Koizuma T. & Oribe T. (1978) “The structure of Agarotetrol:  A novel high oxygenated chromone from Agarwood Jinko” Tetrahedr Letters 41, 3921-3924.


Young C.M. (2001) “The extraction of the non-forest timber product mai hom (Aquilaria crassna) in Northeast Thailand” Tropical Resources Institute Newsletter, Spring 2001.


Yu Chenghung & Liang Yuanui (1980) “Anatomical and Histochemical Studies on Oleoresin form Medicinal Plantation in the wood of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Golg.” 4th Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants, Bankock, Thailand Abstracts Mahidl Univ. Bankok (Thailand).


Zhou Y.B. (1988) “[Pharmacological actions of lignum Aquilariae Resinatum (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) on the smooth muscle of intestines]” Zhong Yao Tong Bao 13(6),40-2, 64.


Zich F. & Compton J. (undated) “The Final Frontier Towards Sustainable Management of Papua New Guinea’s Agarwood Resources." A TRAFFIC Oceana report in conjunction with WWF. 


Fireworks Photo Caption


Hard copies of many of these  articles are stocked in the
Cropwatch Library.


Please notify further suggestions, or any errors spotted,