Van Beek, H.H. (2002) Cultivated Agarwood. Eu Patent No
WO02094002 pub. date 2001-11-28. Abstract: The present invention
provideds agarwood and/or agarwood resin from cultivated trees, and
methods of generating agarwood and/or agarwood resin in cultivated trees.
M. C. M. and B. Gravendeel (Submitted). “Identification of gaharu ( Aquilaria
dry wood using trnL-trnF polymorphisms.”
M.C.M & Gravendeel B. (2005) “TrnL-trnF sequence data imply paraphyly of
Aquilaria & Gyrinops (Thymelaeaceae) and provide new perspectives
for agarwood identification”. Plant Systematics & Evolution254(1-2),
The genera Aquilaria & Gyrinops (Thymelaceae,
Malvales) are well known for the production of agarwood which is a highly
wanted forest product of substantial economic value. The taxonomic status
of Aquilaria & Gyrinops as separate genera is doubted as
they are only distinguished by the number of stamens. We investigated
their status by conducting phylogenic analyses of DNA sequences from the
plasmid trnL-trnF spacer. Control of international trade of agarwood is
directly hampered by the failure of traditional methods such as microscopy
to identify samples to species level. We therefore evaluated the potential
of molecular identification of agarwood by searching for species- and
region-specific plastid DNA polymorphisms. DNA sequences were obtained
from 31 Thymelaeaceae accessions encompassing 20 different species in six
genera. Aquilaria & Gyrinops appear to be paraphyletic.
Success in sequencing wood samples demonstrates that molecular markers
provide new perspectives for agarwood.
Kessler PJA & Eurlings M. (2005) “A new species of Aquilaria from
Vietnam.” Blumea 50(1), 135-141.
new species of Aquilaria is described from Vietnam and keys to the flowering & fruiting specimens of all species from this
region are provided. DNA sequences of nrITS1-5.8S-IT2 region seem to
confirm its status as a distinct species.
Shuyan Q & Lanjuan H. (2005) “Rapid in vitro propagation of medicinally
important Aquilaria agallocha.”J. of Zhejiang University Science6B(8), 849-852.
Abstract:A. agallocha [A.
malaccensis] can produce fragrant agarwood used for incense,
traditional medicine & other products. An efficient plant regeneration
system was established via organogenesis from shoots developed from
seedlings of Aquilaria agallocha. Shoots generated many buds on MS
medium supplemented with 1.3 micromol/L. BA (6-benzylaminopurine) in the
first 7 weeks, and the buds elongated on MS medium with 1.3 micrmol/L. BA
(benzyladenine) + 0.5 micromol/L. NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) in another
7 weeks, 2.3 shoots 2cm. In length per explant were obtained within 14
weeks. Plantlets were rooted on ½ MS medium after being immersed in 5
micromol/L. NAA for 48 h. 96.7% of the roots grew well 2 weeks later. All
plantlets that survived acclimatisation grew well in the pots.
Mitra J. & Gogol P. (2001)
"Fungi Associated with the diseased wood (agarwood/agaru) of Aquilaria
agallocha Roxb. (Fam. Thymelaeaceae) grown in Assam. Proceedings of
Seminar on Scope & Dimension of Agar Plantation in NE region. Edits
M. Ahmed, P. Gogol & G.U. Ahmed pp 61-69, AATMA, Hojai, India.
Pojangaroon S. &
Kaewrak C. (2005) “Mechanical methods to stimulate aloes-wood formation in
Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex H.Lec (Kritsana) trees.” Acta
The efficacy of mechanical methods of stimulating wood formation in A.
crassna trees was determined in a field experiment conducted in Thailand
between Feb 2001 to Oct 2002. The treatment comprised wounding using narrow
(T1) and wide (T2) chisels making holes using screws that are 0.40 (T3),
0.55 (T4), 1.11 (T5, and 1.27 cm. In diameter(T6); bark removal using
hatchets (T7); hammering nails that are 2.54 (T8), 5.08 (T9), 7.62 (T10),
10.16 (T 11) and 12.70 cm. long (T12); and hammer beating the trunk (T13).
Holes made by screws, wounds inflicted by chisels and bark removal caused a
dark yellow-brown discolouration of the trunk near the injury, whereas
hammering nails into the trunk caused a dark brown-black discolouration. The
larger the objects used to wound the trunk, the wider the width of the
discolouration rings. The rate of discolouration ring formation was 3 times
higher during the rainy season compared to the dry season. Then most
suitable method for inducing formation of aloes wood was through the use of
1.27 cm. wide screws which gave the widest discolouration ring and pale
specific aromatic kritsana scent by burning. Wood samples gave very low
essential oil yield.
Puzari K.C. &
Saikia (2001) "Investigation on the Formation & Development of agaru in
Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. Proceedings of Seminar on Scope &
Dimension of Agar Plantation in NE region. Edits M. Ahmed, P. Gogol &
G.U. Ahmed pp 61-69, AATMA, Hojai, India.
Rahman MA &
Basak AC “Agar production in agar trees by artificial inoculation and
wounding” Bano Bigan Patrika Jan-July 1980, 9(1&2) 97-93.
Abstract: Experiments to determine the role of wounding and fungal
infection in the formation of the aromatic base, agar, in the wood of
the Agar tree (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.) were conducted.
Inoculation without wounding using three fungal isolates from agar, as
well as, wounding without inoculant, produced colour changes and
oleoresin deposits in the host characteristic of agar. It was inferred
that formation of agar did not depend on the activity of a special
fungus, as was previously believed, but is a general reaction of the
host to injury or invasion. The possibility of the development of
techniques for the commercial induction of agar is also discussed.
Reports of the American Institute of Unani Medicine,
Oxford NY, Christi Order, 1994.
Health Committee of Hunan Province (1978) A Barefoot Doctors Manual
rev. & enlarged edn. pub. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1978.
Navratilova Z. (1971) “Growth of Fungi in Wood” Drevarasky Vyskum
16 (1/2), 115-22
Varma B.S. (1952) “Agar oil from the wood of Aquilaria agallocha
Roxburgh” SPC25, 169-174.
(1960) “Explanatory studies in the development of essential oils and their
constituents in Aromatic Plants. Part 1: Oil of Agarwood.” SPC33,
Shankaranarayana K.H., Parthasarathi K. & Rai S.N. (1986) “HAWS & HEBS – two
new essential oils from spent Agarwood and Bursera Husk” Perf. &Flav. 11. Oct/Nov 1986 p93-95.
Shaw K. (1966) “Development
issues: tropical forests and Aromatic plants as Non-Timber Forest Products”
from lecture notes 2.8.1996 at Purdue Univ, Indiana, Training Program on
Cordell GA. (1985) “Studies in the Thymelaeaceae. III. Constituents of
Gyrinops walla.” J Nat Prod.
1985 48(4), 684-5.
Yu (1997) “Gaharu. FRIM In Focus” The Forest Research Institute Malaysia,
et al. (1986) [“Exploration and study of regeneration of ‘gaharu’
producing substances in Kintal forest region, South Kalimantan”].
Bulletin Penelitian Hutan 474, 59-66.
& Newton A.C. (2000) “Conservation & Sustainable Use of tropical trees in
the genus Aquilaria. I Status and Use in Indonesia.” Biological
Conservation96 (2000) 83-94.
& Newton A.C. (2001) “Conservation & Sustainable Use of tropical trees in
the genus Aquilaria. II The impact of gaharu harvesting in Indonesia."
Biological Conservation 97(1) 29-41.
& Newton A.C.(2001) “CITES and the conservation of tree species: the
case of Aquilaria in Indonesia”Internat Forestry Review3(1), 27-33. Commonwealth Forestry
Newton, A. C. (2001) “Reproductive ecology of Aquilaria spp. in
Indonesia”Forest Ecology &
Newton & A. C. Mardiastuti A. (2002) “Factors influencing the survival and
growth of Aquilaria malaccensis seedlings in Indonesia”
Journalof Tropical Forest Science 14(3), 364-378 Forest
Research Institute Malaysia.
Newton & A. C (2002) “The Gaharu Trade in Indonesia: Is it Sustainable?”
Economic Botany56(3) pp271-284.
Abstract: When subjected to a fungal attack, Aquilaria spp. (Thymelaeaceae)
produce a fragrant resin that is traded internationally as gaharu.
Socioeconomic aspects of the gaharu trade were investigated via
interviews with collectors and local and international traders. In
addition, the extent of local and international trade was evaluated by
reference to official government statistics. Evidence that gaharu
resources are declining was obtained from the personal experience of
gaharu collectors, and official statistics relating to the declining
number of gaharu export companies in operation. Traders also reported
that the main source of gaharu has recently switched from Sumatra and
Kalimantan to sources in eastern Indonesia (Maluku and Irian Jaya), a
finding supported by official statistics. Disparities recorded between
official figures for the price and volume of gaharu in local and
international trade, supported by comments made by export traders,
indicate that a high proportion of the more valuable, high-grade
gaharu is traded illegally by personal transaction. Interviews with
gaharu collectors indicated that traditional approaches to harvesting
are declining, as more nonlocal people become involved in collection,
leading to more intensive harvesting practices. Together, these
findings suggest that the current Indonesian trade in gaharu is not
& Mardiastuti A. (2002) "CITES Implementation in Indonesia". Nagao
International Experimental Foundation.
Soehartono T. (2003)
“Sustainable Trade in Agarwood and Ramin in Indonesia” Paper presented at
the Workshop on National Strategy and Trade of Trees in Indonesia.
Indonesian Institute of Sciences – Centre for Biological Research. Bogor
H., Attamimi F., Kadota S (2005) “A field survey of agarwood in Indonesia”
J of Trad. Medicines22(4), 244-251.
Agarwood is one of the most valuable non-timber forest products harvested
from the tropical forests in S.E. Asia. We have surveyed agarwood in
Indonesia which is performed through interviewed collectors, businessmen,
and government officers (Ministry of Forestry, East Kalimentan, Indonesia)
and also surveyed the wild agarwood and its cultivation in South Sulawesi
& East Kalimantan Provinces. High economic value is one of the reasons for
collecting agarwood to increase family income of the peoples living by the
forest. Each surveyed area has a different classification and price of
each grade, according to their experience by observing the darkness,
smell, oily and density of agarwood. Over exploitation of the natural
resource makes the stock becoming exhausted. It has been an initiative for
the conserving the plant of source agarwood by cultivation. Fungi, the
known stimulators in formation of agarwood, are used in the cultivation of
agarwood. Fusariumlaseritum is the faster fungus infecting
Aquilaria sp. tree, and can be isolated and inoculated easily into
medium. Thus, this fungus is inoculated into holes in the trunk. One year
after inoculation obtained agarwood with the lowest grade. This
cultivation program was supported by the Indonesian government through
research & training to the collector who cultivate agarwood.
W., Tunglert S., Thirawarapan S.S., Kitpati C. & Bunyapraphatsara N. (2005)
“Actions of Ya-hom, a herbal drug combination, on isolated rat aortic ring
and atrial contractions.” Phytomedicine 12(8), 561-569.
The effect of the popular Thai medicine Ya-hom on
cardiovascular function was studied in isolated rat aortic ring and atrium
by comparison with norepinephrine (NE). Ya-hom contains extracts of
Agastache rugosa, Acorus gramineus, Lysimachia
foenum-graecum, Citrus nobilis, Magnolia officinalis,
Cinnamomum cassia (C. aromaticum), Asarum sieboldii,
Ligusticum wallichii, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Eugenia
caryophyllata (Syzygium aromaticum), Saussurealappa,
Aquillaria agallocha, Atractylis ovata & Angelica anomala.
Water extraction of ya-hom at 0.83, 1.67, 8.33, & 16.67mg/ml stimulated
aortic ring contraction dose-dependently. The maximum concentration, at
16.67 mg/ml was ~14% that of NE. This stimulatory effect of Ya-hom was
inhibited partially by phentolamine, which indicated that the effect of
Ya-hom was partly dependent on the alpha receptor, similar to NE.
Administration of Ya-hom with NR decreased the force of aortic ring
contraction compared to the effect of NE alone, indicating the Ya-hom may
have a partial alpha-agonist activity. Ya-hom at concentrations of 1.67,
8.33 & 16.67 mg/ml showed a dose-dependent positive inotropic and negative
chronotropic effects. Ya-hom increased the force of isolated atrial
contraction with slow onset and prolonged action. In contract to NE which
acted on beta 1 reeceptor, causing positive inotrophic & negative
chromotrophic effects, propanolol did not alter the effect of Ya-hom on
the atrial contraction. This shows the action of Ya-hom on atrial
contraction does not involve the beta-receptor. This study demonstrated
that the selected Ya-hom preparation increased vascular smooth muscle
contraction, increase the force, but decreased the rate of atrial
W., Tunglert S., Thirawarapan S.S., & Bunyapraphatsara N. (2005) “Effects of
Ya-hom on blood pressure in rats.” J. ofEthnopharmacology
The effects of Ya-hom a traditional Thai formulation, on blood pressure
were evaluated to verify its use for fainting treatment. Ya-hom has
several recipes which are composed of different herbal plants in varying
ratio. We have selected the most popular commercial preparation to
determine the effect on blood pressure in rats. The water extract of
Ya-hom at doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8g/Kg initially transiently
decreased pressure and over time, increased blood pressure. The duration
of the Ya-hom effect of decreasing & increasing blood pressure was dose
dependent. Phentolamine attenuated the blood pressure decreasing effect
but did not affect the blood pressure increasing effect of Ya-hom. Ya-hom
was previously shown to increase aortic ring contraction which was
partially inhibited by phentolamine, and increased atrial contraction. It
is possible that phentolamine inhibits the effect of Ya-hom on vascular
smooth muscle contraction resulting in a prominent positive inotropic
effect. This may be the same reason that phentolamine does influence the
effect of Ya-hom on increasing the blood pressure. The dominant effect of
Ya-hom on increasing the blood pressure supports the use of Ya-hom for the
treatment of fainting.
Bhuyan D., Borah P., Nath SC (1999) “Seed-bourne fungi of Agarwood plant”
Indian Phytopathology52(3), 312.
Boruah P., Nath S. & Leclercq P. (2005) "Essential oil of Eaglewood Tree:
a product of pathogenesis." J. Essen. Oil. Res. 17,
Boruah P, Nath SC, Bhuyan D & Samanta R (2000a) “Mycofloral study on
rhizosphere of Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.” Assam
Tamuli P, Boruah P, Nath SC, &
Samanta R (2000) “Fungi from diseased agarwood tree (Aquilaria agallocha
Roxb.): two new records” in Advances in Forestry Research 2000, XXII
ed. Ram Parkash p182-189.
Abstract: “Agar is known as the results of natural infection, found as
irregular patches in trunks of the standing tree of Aquilaria
agallocha Roxb., which are of great economic importance. Two fungi,
viz., Fusarium oxysporum Schlect. and Chaetonium globosum
Kunze. were isolated for the first time from the diseased wood of A.
agallocha. These two fungi colonised wood blocks of A. agallocha when
these were inoculated artificially.
Boruah P. (2002) “Changes in free Amino acids in Agarwood plant under
Pathological condition” Geobios - Jodhpur29(4), 241-243.
Boruah P. (2002) “Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (VAM) Assocaition of
Agarwood tree in Jorhat District of the Brahmatputra Valley.” Indian
Forester128(9), 991-994 Forest Research Institute.
Tamuli P., Boruah P. & Nath
S.C. (2005) "Essential Oil of Eaglewood Tree: a Product of Pathogenisis"
J. Essent Oil. Res17, 601-604
essential oil of the Eaglewood tree (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.)
has been considered to be a pathological product. An investigation was
carried out to study the difference in composition of oils obtained from
healthy, naturally infected and artifically inoculated eaglewood using GC
and GC/MS analyses. This investigation shows a marked difference in the
oil compositions among the treatments witrh regards to their quality.
Valerianol (3.0%) and tetradecanoic acid (7.1%) contents were recorded
higher in the oils of naturally infected plants than in that of healthy
ones (0.1% and 6.9% respectively). Pentedecanoic acid was totally absent
in the oils of healthy (..plants/trees?), whereas it was found in a
greater amount (6.8%) in the oil of naturally infected plants. In contrast
dodecanoic acid (3.1%), pentedecanoic acid (6.2%), hexadecanoic acid
(31.5%) and octadecanoic acid were found in the oils of healthy plants,
while the oils obtained from naturally infected plants contained lower
amounts of these components (2.3%, 4.8%, 20.0% and 1.0% respectively). The
oils obtained from the inoculated plants showed almost similar
distribution of the components with healthy plants.
Thomas A.F. &
Ozianne M. (1976) “The stereochemistry of the dihydroagofurans” Tet. Lett.20, 1717-1718.
(2002) [“Eaglewood and eagle”] Yakushigaku Zasshi 37(1),
Abstract: The etymology of
eaglewood (chen xiang) and its related terms with particular reference
to its relation to eagle (aquilaria) is discussed. It is pointed out
that this fragrant wood has nothing to do with eagle. A Portuguese
aguila transcribed from akil (Malay, the name of wood), perhaps
underwent phonetic traction to aguia (Portuguese, eagle) in the
process of being translated into French. Thus pau d'aguila
(Portuguese) was transformed to bois d'aigle (French, aigle=eagle),
which led to eagle-wood (English) and Adlerholz (German).
Nusa Cendana (1996). Prospek Pengusahaan Gaharu di Nusa Tenggara Timur: Studi
Maheshwari M.L. & Bhattacharyya S.C. (1965) “Terpenoids LXII. The
constitution of agarospirol, a sesquiterpenoid with a new skeleton.
(1977) “Trials of herbicides for inducing formation of agarwood in
Aquilaria agollocha Roxb.” Indian Perfumer XXI(3),151-3.
Abstract: The results of trials with auxin herbicides viz., 2,4-D,
2,4,5-T and MCPA on the formation and development of agarwood in 15
year old Aquilariaagallocha Roxb. trees growing in
Sissagar Forest Division of Assam are given. The effect of mechanical
injury was also observed. The indicative trials reported in the paper
have shown the said herbicides and the mechanical injury do not appear
to have induced the formation of agarwood in Aquilaria agallocha
Roxb. till one year after the treatment.
Venkataramanan M.N., Borthakur &
Singh H.D. (1985) "Occurrence of Endotrophic myccorhizzal fungus in agarwood
plant Aquilaria agallocha Roxb. Current Sci54,
(ed) (1973) Tree Flora of Malaysia Longman Group, London.
(1995) Gaharu, Aquilaria spp. Perkembangandan pemanfaatan
berkelanjutan. Lokakarya pengusahaan hasil hutan non kayu Indonesia.
Surabaya, 31 Juli-1 Agustus 1995.
“Incentives for Collecting Gaharu (Fungal-Infected Wood of Aquilaria
spp.; Thymelaceae) in East Kalimantan Economic Botany55(3),444-456.
Xu J-F., Zhu
L-F., Lu B-Y. & Liu C-T. (1988) “Study on chemical constituents of
Aquilaria sinensis (Lour) Gilg. Zhiwu Xuebo30, 635-638.
Yagura T., Ito
M., Kiuchi F., Honda G., Shimada Y. (2003) “Four new
2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives from the withered wood of Aquilaria
sinensis.” ChemPharm Bull51(5), 560-564.
new chromone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone,
6,7-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrochromone were isolated
from the methanol extract of withered wood of Aquilaria sinensis,
together with seven known constituents of agarwood.
Shibayama N ., Ito M., Kiuchi F. & Honda G. (2005) “Three novel diepoxy
tetrahydrochromones from agarwood artificially wounded by intentional
wounding” Tetrahedron Letters 46(25), 4395-4398.
Three novel diepoxy tetrahydrochromones, oxidoagarochromones A (1), B(2) &
C(3) were isolated from agarwood artificially produced by intentional
wounding of A. crassna. Inductive production of these three
compounds was also confirmed at the early stage of wounding in A.
sinensis and A. crassna. These diepoxy tetrahydrochromones
would play an important role in the understanding the biuosynthesis of
chromone derivatives in agarwood.
(1979) Koryo Hakubuttan Jiten [Encyclopaedia of Incense] Dohosba.
(1995) “Aloeswood Forest and the maritime World”. South East Asian
KK Incense containing chromone derivatives isolated from Aquilaria
agalloca Patent: Japan Kokari Tokkyo Koho JP84106414; JP 59106414 Date:
840620 Application: JP82217299 (821210).
Akihiko (1981) “Jinko, the scented wood of Aquilaria aquallocha
Roxb.” Koryo 134, 61-4.
(2001)I., Mandang & Bambang Wityono “Anatomy of Eaglewood (Aquilaria
malaccensis) and several related species” Poster at 5th
Pacific Regional Wood Anatomy Conference (Yogyakarta). p471
Yang J.S. &
Chen Y.W. (1983) “[Studies on the constituents of Aquilaria sinensis
(Lour.) Gilg. I. Isolation and structure elucidation of two new
sesquiterpenes, baimuxinic acid and baimuxinal] Yao Xue Xue
Chen Y.W. (1986) “[Studies on the chemical constituents of Aquilaria
sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. II. Isolation and structure of baimuxinol and
dehydrobaimuxinol]” Yao Xue Xue Bao21(7),516-20.
Wang Y.L., Su Y.L., He C.H., Zheng Q.T., Yang J. (1989) [Studies on the
chemical constituents of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour) Gilg. III.
Elucidation of the structure of isobaimuxinol and isolation and
identification of the constituents of lower boiling fraction of the volatile
oil] Yao Xue Xue Bao.
Abstract: A new sesquiterpenoid, named isobaimuxinol, C15H26O2, mp
73-75 degrees C, [a]D12-68(0) (c 0.10, CHCl3), was isolated from the
volatile oil of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour), Gilg. (Thymeleaceae).
Based on spectral (IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR as well as MS)
analysis its structure was identified as isobaimuxinol. The relative
stereochemistry of isobaimuxinol was determined by X-ray
crystallograhy. In addition, four known compounds, benzylacetone, p-methoxybenzylacetone,
anisic acid and beta-agarofuran were isolated and identified from the
lower boiling fraction of the volatile oil of this plant. These
compounds were obtained for the first time from this plant.
Wang Y.L., Su Y.L. (1989) “[Studies on the chemical constituents of
Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. IV. Isolation and characterization of
2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives]” Yao Xue Xue Bao24(9):678-83.
Abstract: Six chromone derivatives were isolated from the ether
soluble fraction of the alcoholic extract of Aquilaria sinensis
(Lour.) Gilg. (Thymeleaceae) by silica gel chromatography. On the
basis of spectrometric data (UV, IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR as well as MS)
and chemical synthesis one of them was found to be a new chromone,
6-hydroxy-2-[2-(4'-methoxylphenyl)ethyl] chromone(VI) and the other
five known chromones are 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone(I),
6-hydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone(V). These compounds were obtained
for the first time from this plant.
Wang Y.L., Su Y.L. (1990) “[Studies on the chemical constituents of
Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. V. Isolation and characterization of
three 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone derivatives]” Yao Xue Xue Bao 25(3),186-90.
Abstract:Three 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromone derivatives were
isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the alcoholic
extract of Aquilaria sinensis (Lous.) Gilg. (Thymeleaceae) by
silica gel chromatography. Based on spectral data (UV, IR, 1HNMR,
13CNMR and MS) two of them are new compounds and their structures were
identified as 5,8-dihydroxy-2-(2-p-methoxyphenylethyl) chromone (2)
and 6,7-dimethoxy-2-(2-p-methoxyphenylethyl) chromone (3). The known
compound isolated for the first time from this plant, was identified
as 5,8-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)-chromone (1).
Yamagata E., Nakanishi T., Nagashima T., Kawasaki I., Yoshida T., Mo Yoneda
K. (1984) “Sesquiterpenoids in Two Different kinds of Agarwood"
Abstract: Sesquiterpenoids of an agarwood originating from
Aquilaria agallocha and the other kind of agarwood (Aquilaria
sp. probably A.malaccensis) were investigated by a
combination of GLC and GC/MS. The differences in sesquiterpene
composition between the two kinds of agarwood are discussed.”
Koizuma T. & Oribe T. (1978) “The structure of Agarotetrol: A novel high
oxygenated chromone from Agarwood Jinko” Tetrahedr Letters41,
(2001) “The extraction of the non-forest timber product mai hom (Aquilaria
crassna) in Northeast Thailand” Tropical Resources Institute
Newsletter, Spring 2001.
Yu Chenghung &
Liang Yuanui (1980) “Anatomical and Histochemical Studies on Oleoresin form
Medicinal Plantation in the wood of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Golg.”
4th Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants, Bankock, Thailand
Abstracts Mahidl Univ. Bankok (Thailand).
(1988) “[Pharmacological actions of lignum Aquilariae Resinatum (Aquilaria
agallocha Roxb.) on the smooth muscle of intestines]” Zhong Yao
Tong Bao13(6),40-2, 64.
Zich F. &
Compton J. (undated) “The Final Frontier Towards Sustainable Management of Papua New
Guinea’s Agarwood Resources." A TRAFFIC Oceana report in conjunction with WWF.
Fireworks Photo Caption
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